Nova Scotia is a state located in the northeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Aroostook to the west, French Canada to the northwest, the Atlantic ocean to the east and south, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the north, where it also shares a maritime border with French Canada. Nova Scotia is regarded as part of the Northeastern United States, and is, along with neighboring Aroostook, part of the Atlantic subregion, as opposed to New England, which is regarded as everything south of Aroostook and east of New York.
Nova Scotia was a former French colony known as Acadia until captured by Britain in 1710. It was ceded to the United States as part of the British Cession in 1815-16 following the Treaty of London and the Treaty of Rouen. As a populous colony and close to key American ports, Nova Scotia flourished in the late 1810s and early 1820s and was admitted as the 24th state in 1823. Nova Scotia's economy was primarily fishing and shipping-based, and partly agricultural until the late 19th century, when it became one of the hubs for the United States' Atlantic fleet. As the mainland United States' easternmost state, Nova Scotia also became an important landing point for European immigrants during this time, and is reflected in its diverse population, with many Irish, Polish, Italian and Russian descendants. Today the state remains an important manufacturing, shipping, fishing and military region, in particular due to its proximity to French Canada and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
The capital and largest city of Nova Scotia is Halifax, which also has the largest land area of any city in the state. As per the 2010 census, the population of Nova Scotia is 3,780,071. A politically liberal state at the national level, Nova Scotia has not voted Nationalist in a Presidential election since 1980, although it has had three consecutive Nationalist Governors, not including incumbent Shawn Graham, the first Democratic Governor since 1984.