Norway (Norwegian: Norge (bokmål) or Noreg (nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe that occupies the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, stretching from its northern extremity to its southern one. The majority of the country shares a border to the southeast with Sweden and its northern region is bordered by Finland to the south and east. The United Kingdom and the Faroe Islands lay to its west across the North Sea, and Denmark lies south of its southern tip across the Skagerrak Strait. Norway's extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean, is home to its famous fjords.
On June 7, 1905 Norway claimed their independence from the personal union with Sweden, becoming the first European nation to declare independence in the 20th century. During both World Wars, Norway claimed neutrality, but it was invaded by German forces during World War II on 9 April 1940. The Allies also had plans in mind for an invasion of the country and a British fleet mined Norwegian territorial waters, also in April 1940. Norway was unprepared for the German surprise attack, but military resistance continued for two months until they were forced to surrender on June 10. On the day of the invasion, the collaborative leader of the small National-Socialist party Nasjonal Samling — Vidkun Quisling — seized power and formed a collaborationist government under German control with himself as minister president. Following the German's withdrawal from Norway in 1943, Quisling was arrested and tried for high treason and subsequently executed by firing squad.
Norway was one of the original members of the United States of Europe