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In 1217, the Civil War in Norway between the Baglers and Birkebeiners ended.
1261/62/64, Greenland and Iceland became Norwegian. OTOH, 1266 Scotland bought the Hebrides and Man from Norway. The two countries started to get closer. In the year 1286, the "maid of Norway" didn't drown, arrived in Scotland. (She would still die soon, however.)
Since 1350-75: Due to growing demand for food, Norway (like other countries) extended fishery in the North Atlantic, going farther and farther west. Soon, tales of strange islands in the far west started to spread among fishermen and sailors.
Together with Scotland
In 1319, the Norwegians had made Magnus II Eriksson of Sweden their king Magnus VII; but 1361-64, the Hanseatic League defeated Sweden-Norway in a trade war. The Norwegians became unhappy with king Magnus, made Daibidh II of Scotland their king in 1365 instead.
In 1409 Robert, the younger brother of king Daibidh III of Scotland-Norway, tried to conspire with some Norwegians to become king of Norway himself - without success. 1416, he tried to murder his brother, but his conspiracy was prevented, and he was incarcerated for the rest of his life. (Unfortunately for him, he'd become 80 years old.)
Scotland-Norway also entered the Third Aquitainian War 1477-83 on France's side, but had to pay for it. 1479/80 Sweden invaded Norway, occupied and annexed the Norwegian province of Jämtland. And 1487, the English took the Scottish capital of Perth; king Daibidh V and his three sons had to flee to Norway. The Shetland and Orkney islands became English, too.
1506, king David V of Norway died. His heir, Prince Alasdair / Alexander, was only three years old. The nobles used the opportunity and set up a nobles' republic, similar as Aragon. They planned to kill the prince, but he was smuggled by some loyal Scottish followers out of Norway; they first fled to Denmark, later to the Netherlands and France.
1521, Prince Alasdair went to Atlantis, where he spent some time around the Caribbean. He also approached the Tenochca and learns about their gold riches. Since the Quadruple Monarchy threatened to conquer these lands, he went back to Europe and persuaded the French king to start the Great Occidental War, successful.
Meanwhile in 1523, Henrik VI of Denmark also had been elected new king of Norway, after Sweden. He now reigned all of Scandinavia. But 1541, his son Gerhard was deposed for complete madness. Denmark fell into Civil War, Norway became a nobles' republic again, Sweden declared independence too.
1562, Alasdair finally was elected king of Norway, returning in triumph. In 1588, he died and his vast lands are divided: Scotland and Ireland went to his elder son Alexander V, Scandinavia to his younger son Christian / Kristian. He would lose Sweden quite soon, however.
| Prominent Rulers|
(founding members in italics)
In the First Nordic War 1607-11 Sweden defeated Denmark-Norway, took Göteborg, Trondheim and Narvik. After the anti-French War (which is often also called second Nordic War in Scandinavia for this reason), the rest of Norway followed in the peace of Amsterdam. This development wasn't too bad for Norway actually, since the democratic rights in Sweden (which was united with the Netherlands around this time) were better developed than in Denmark.
While the connection to the Dutch was severed after the first and the second French Republican War, Sweden-Norway would conquer Denmark in the third Nordic War (otherwhere known as third French Republican War) as a compensation.
The revolution of the telegraph first and the effects of industrialization later shook up the society of Norway in the 18th and 19th century. More and more people started to look at the Socialist and Social Democratic parties for their problems.