North America (Spanish: América del Norte or Norteamérica; French: Amérique du Nord) is the northern continent of the Americas, situated in the Earth's northern hemisphere and in the western hemisphere. It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean on the southeast by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the North Pacific Ocean; South America lies to the southeast.
North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 sq km (9,540,000 sq mi), about 4.8% of the planet's surface or about 16.5% of its land area. As of July 2008, its population was estimated at nearly 529 million people. It is the third-largest continent in area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth in population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.
Countries in North America
- Guatemala and Belize
- Confederate States of America
- Caribbean Federation
- South Texas (partially recognized)
- Costa Rica
- United States
- Greater Alberta
- Northern Confederation
Most North American nations gained independence from European rulers in the late 18th century, and some others from each other throughout the 19th century.
World War I, Interbellum, and World War II
In 1912–1913 the First North American War broke out when Caribbean and Central American nations, having large populations under Spanish rule, united in an alliance against the Spanish and after a five months war essentially terminated the Spain's presence in North America after four centuries centuries. Two months after the end of the common war, a Second North American War broke out when the Confederacy, dissatisfied from its share, attacked its former Allies Mexico and the Caribbean Federation. The Mexicans and the Caribbeans repelled them and after Mexican army invaded the Confederacy following a Californian intervention, the CSA collapsed. In an attempt to re-gain a presence in the Americas, Spain intervened by invading Confederate Florida, and establishing its new western borders that stand until today.
World War I was sparked in North America in 1914 when a Brown Hand revolutionary organization with predominately Mexican and pro-Hispanic oriented members assassinated in Mexico City US President Theodore Roosevelt. That caused a war between the two countries- the United States and Mexico- which -through the existing chain of alliances- led to the First World War. Spain soon joined the Allied Powers becoming one of the three empires participating in that alliance. The next year the Confederacy joined the Allied Powers, attacking Mexico which at that time the Mexicans were successfully fighting the United States to the north for a year. That led to Mexico's defeat and the intervention of the Entente in North America, which sent an expeditionary force to establish a new front, the third one of that war, which soon became also static. The participation of the Caribbean Federation in the war three years later, in 1918, on the part of the Entente finally altered the balance between the opponents leading to the collapse of the common French-Confederate front there which caused the exit of the Confederacy from the war, and in turn the collapse of the United States and Canada ending the First World War.
Although the new government reaffirmed Mexico's intentions to fulfill its obligations as member of the Axis, Britain using its other two allied countries on the region, the Confederacy and California, invaded both the Caribbean Federation and Mexico. Mexico immediately disintegrated when the loyal to the Mexican King and the Honduran units, mutinied. The Caribbean Federation resisted, but after two months fighting collapsed and occupied. The two countries were partitioned between the three regional Axis allies, the Confederacy, Great Britain, and Spain, and two independent states, Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador, were created.With the start of the Second World War in 1939, all North American countries with the exception of the Caribbean Federation were allies of Great Britain, having bilateral military agreements or being part of the Axis Pact. Fascist Spain expanded the war in North America by using its protectorate Florida to invade the Caribbean Federation. After repelling the attack the the Caribbeans, counterattacked invading Spanish-held Florida, causing for Britain's intervention in North America in order to help its ally. Days before the British invasion a successful coup in Mexico City by neutral military personnel sized the power.
During the occupation the population suffered considerable hardship due to ethnic cleansing policies, repression and starvation on which the population reacted by creating a mass resistance movement. Together with the early and extremely heavy winter of that year (which caused hundreds of thousands of deaths among the poorly fed population), the British invasion had disastrous effects in the timetable of the planned invasion of France, causing a significant delay which had key consequences to the route of the war.
Finally at the end of 1944, Germany (a new ally in the war) invaded the United States and Confederate States while the British evacuated central America. World War II was over when the British surrendered in 1945, and fighting in North America ceased as well
Great Communist War
During the Great Communist War, most of the countries of North America were governed by Germany. The Caribbean Federation became the first non-European battleground of the emerging Great Communist War and finally remained the only non-German ruled country in the region, after having successfully dealt with a wild guerrilla war unleashed by the local Communist party backed by the neighboring Communist countries (Florida, the Confederacy and Mexico) much in the same fashion as with Vietnam, causing a full scale civil war during 1944-49.
However, despite being under communist governments, Mexico (1948) and Florida (1961) fell out with Germany. Mexico first propped up then rejected the idea of merging with the Confederacy, and instead sought closer relations with the East, later even joining many third world countries in the Non-Aligned Movement. The United States on the other hand gravitated towards its traditional friend, Great Britain, later adopting an isolationist position.
As the only non-communist countries, Mexico and Venezuela were (and still are) part of the East Asian Pact, consisting the Central American wing of the alliance.
In the 1990s, the region was gravely affected by the civil war in Mexico, broken out after Mexico's attempt to change the status of equality between the Hispanic federated Republics to proportionate status. Other Republics didn't agree to the proposed change as unconstitutional and when Mexico tried to enforce it Honduras abandoned the federation. Mexican government leaders in turn declared the dissolution of the union as unconstitutional and the Mexican Army unsuccessfully tried to invade Honduras which together with Nicaragua had declared independence. In the ensuing ten years armed confrontation, gradually all the other Republics declared independence. The long lasting civil war resulted in an Axis Nation's intervention and East Asian Pact ground and air forces took action against the Mexican Army and guerrilla groups in Guatemala and Belize, Mexico, and the disputed region of South Texas.
From the dissolution of the Mexican six republics achieved international recognition as sovereign republics: Nicaragua, Slovenia, Guatemala and Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador and a democratized Mexico. South Texas (according to the official Mexican policy still an internal autonomous region), currently under UN administration, declared independence in 2008. In July 2010, the International Court of Justice, opined that the declaration is legal under the international law. The international community is still divided on the matter and while the majority of the UN members do not recognize it as independent, most East Asian Pact and Asian Union countries do. After the end of the wars a revolution broke in Mexico City and the dictatorship ruling Mexico since the 1940s was overthrown. Ιn 2001 a Honduran uprising in Nicaragua forced the country to give local autonomy to the ethnic Hondurans in the areas where they predominate .