Few nations developed quickly enough to grow faster and hold up against the Africans. But, the ones who did grew into continental and for some time, world powers. Most of non-African nations are small minor nations, or city states.
List of Major Non-African Nations
The Chinese were one of three major civilizations in Asia. They expanded, and at the height of its power in the Ming dynasty in the 16-18th centuries, they were a super power of the world. But this did not last after the several wars with many African nations. Civil war and revolution destroyed the country to several small nations by 1915 CE. In its time, China was the most advanced nation outside of Africa. It thrived in culture, science, and many other feats until contact with the Africans in the Age of Discovery and breaking of Chinese isolation. In the Age of Colonization, war broke out between the massive Egyptian Empire, supported by Great Zimbabwe and Songhai, invaded China. This was the start of the many Colonization Wars.
The Mongol Empire was a somewhat large nation in Northern Asia, just south of Siberia. It was known for its horsemen archery. The Mongolians were normally a warrior nation, constantly expanding. This is what ended their nation by 1895 CE (The end of the Age of Colonization). Mongolia put a little dent on history, and they are hardly known for anything besides their warfare. The Mongols were destroyed by the Ethiopians after the Mongol's attempted invasion of Ethiopia. This would later be known as the Afro-Eurasian War.
Empire of Japan
The Empire of Japan was a seafaring nation in the Pacific islands. It was known for its vast navy, who was one of the largest in Eurasia. Its navy was second only to Ethiopia and Egypt. They have a tight trading routs connecting their vastly regions, which were thousands of miles apart. Some of their regions were the Philippines Islands, Japan, and several islands thought the Pacific. Their days as a Pacific super power ended in recent history after the large famines that followed the Colonization Wars in the 1600s to the 1800s. Their navy was brutalized and trade broke between mainland Japan and it's regions. This followed in large famines, and the islands were devastated.
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia was the only major European power. It contained lands from modern day St Petersburg to modern day Moscow. It was known for its Russian Winter, which devastated the Egyptian invaders when they attempted to invade it during the Winter War in the winter of 1820. Russia is also known for its culture. Its paintings and distinct architecture is one of the greatest in the Eurasia. Russia is one of few non-African nations in existence today.