The quote goes as follows: "I am born of a rank that recognizes no superior but God."
Welcome to No Superior But God ATL. The name is derived from a quote from Richard I, King of England, made to his captor and ransomer, Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor that he gave in defiance of the Emperor's request for Richard to show deference to him.
In 1193, Henry VI captured Richard the Lionheart on his return trip to England from his crusades in the Holy Land. Eager to help fund an army for his designs on Sicily, Henry VI ransomed King Richard for an exorbitant sum. Pope Celestine III had long opposed Henry VI and his attempts to unite southern Italy with Holy Roman realm. Seeing as imprisoning crusaders was fundamentally illegal in the eyes of the Church, Celestine III naturally excommunicated Emperor Henry. Richard's ransom was paid, and Emperor Henry VI did not see the excommunication as all-together extremely detrimental to his campaign on Sicily. However, upon reaching Sicily and finding the nobles of Palermo and the island openly rebelling against his authority due to in part his excommunication, Henry VI took a bold, aggressive action that would have far-reaching consequences. He took his army and marched on Rome itself. Easily securing his march through Italy, he reached Rome and forced Pope Celestine III to relinquish his power, demanding an immediate gathering of the Cardinals to elect a new Pope. With the Papal States occupied by the German king's forces, the Roman Curia was forced to elect a weak-willed, pro-German Pope named Marinus III. Pope Celestine III stepped down as Pope and was exiled to the Kingdom of Castile as per Emperor Henry VI's orders. Henry VI now had full Papal backing, and the stability of Sicily was more secure. Henry VI then forced the newly elected Marinus III to issue a Papal Bull that described the exact relationship of the Emperor and the Pope. This was to be called posthumously the Roman Seal of 1193. This included the following:
- The German Prince-Electors have the right to elect the King of the Romans, free of influence of the Pope.
- The King of the Romans, as official protector of the Pope, has a necessary power to anoint and consecrate an election of the Pope and legitimate Papal authority.
- The King of the Romans reserves the right to demand the Papal Curia elect a different Pope if the Emperor deems an elected Pope unfit for the the theological authority of the position. This power comes from the Holy Roman Emperor's responsibility as defender of the faith, and therefore defender of Christianity from Popes that are unfit to lead the faith, and may lead all of Christendom into a possibly heretical or factionalist future, dominated by corruption and dynastic nepotism within the Papal hierarchy.
- 1194, Alfonso VIII of Castile lost the Battle of Alarcos, as in the OTL, however, Alfonso IX of Leon launched a successful invasion of Castile after the disaster of Alarcos in an attempt to take back lands lost to Castile years prior, also as in the OTL. Without an effective Pope to excommunicate Alfonso of Leon, the Christian powers of Iberia did not unite against Alfonso of Leon in support of Castile. Instead, a temporary yet effective alliance between Leon and the Almohad Caliph al-Mansur formed, leading to major setbacks in the Christian reconquest, including the loss of Toledo, then the capital of Castile, to the Almohad Caliphs. The Almohads subsequently took greater interest in their Iberian holdings, with the major setback of the Reconquista set as the impetus for a major push against the now disjointed and bickering Christian powers.
- 1195, The Kingdom of Leon, having successfully curbed the rising power of the Castilian Kingdom, now in turn made peace with Castile, marries Berengaria of Castile, as in the OTL. The couple, however, does not have their marriage annulled by the Papacy as in the OTL. They give birth to a son, the future Ferdinand III of Leon, who will inherit a Leonese realm and a truncated Castilian Kingdom.
- The Teutonic Knights is never confirmed to be a legitimate military order by the weak-willed Pope.
- 1196, Both the Imperial Diets of Wurzburg and Erfurt made the imperial crown hereditary, and specifically belonging to Henry VI's house of Hohenstaufen, delegating his successor as his son, Frederick II, or in the case of Henry's untimely death prior to his son coming of age, the crown would go to Philip, Duke of Swabia. Though this was approved my a majority of the Prince-Electors, a noticeable minority headed by powers such as Otto of Brunswick and Ottokar I of Bohemia did not agree with the formation of a hereditary crown for the King of the Romans at either Diets.
- 1197, Henry VI, attempting to further pacify his Sicilian domain, stays in Palermo and southern Italy until September of 1198, where he is poisoned while preparing for a crusade.
- 1199, Philip of Swabia, brother of Henry VI, claims rights as King of the Romans through the the agreements at the Diets of Wurzburg and Erfurt. Otto of Brunswick, a notable leader of the minority vote of Prince-Electors against hereditary crown at both Diets, openly refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of Philip's status as Emperor. He was elected by the Prince-Electors in northern Germany, notably the Duchy of Bohemia, against Philip who had the backing of the Papal authority and the southern Prince-Electors.
- 1199, Richard I of England, after enduring hardship and being ransomed by the Staufen dynasty, supports Otto of Brunswick against Philip of Swabia. To challenge this, Philip II Augustus of France sides with Philip of Swabia, against English ambitions.
- 1200, Richard I the Lionheart dies in while campaigning against the French in Normandy, leaving Otto of Brunswick without the financial support of England.
- 1202, Alfonso of Leon leads a coalition of Christian Kingdoms, including the King of Portugual, Sancho of Navarre, and Alfonso of Castile, against the newly revitalized Almohad Caliphate. The coalition set out to siege Toledo, the capital of Castile that had been retaken by the Almohads in their joint-Leonese war against Castile. Only the armies of Aragon were not present. The Caliph al-Mansur, beginning to invest greater interest and troops to his Andalusian holdings in Iberia, raised a force of 150,000 troops from across the Maghreb and Iberian Almohad holdings. He also recruited many local Christian mercenaries in the nearby regions of Toledo. The siege was a failure, resulting in the death of Alfonso of Castile. al-Mansur did not capitalize on this victory by in turn invading the Christian kingdoms, and instead set about pacifying Toledo and the surround cities which had not long ago been under Castilian dominion.
- April 1203, the King of Portugal, Sancho I, attacked the Almohad lands, conquering as far south as the region of Silves, and beginning a process of population the conquered regions with Portuguese Christians from the north.
- 1204, With the absence of Pope Innocent III to officially organize and declare the Fourth Crusade, Constantinople remains free of a Latin Crusade against Constantinople.
- 1205, Philip II of Spain and Philip, Holy Roman Emperor, put increased pressure on Otto of Brunswick, the Emperor elected by the rebelling northern Prince-Electors. Philip negotiated a successful peace with King Jon of England, knocking him out of the war. In the critical Battle of Wassenburg, Philip II's forces narrowly defeated the forces of Otto, with his Saxon allies.
- 1206, Philip of Swabia, Holy Roman Emperor, granted Ottokar I of Bohemia his rights as a King of Bohemia, making his realm void of Emperor appointment and made Ottokar's dynasty the hereditary and permanent rules of Bohemia. The Bohemians, therefore, would not only stop supporting the rival-Emperor Otto of Brunswick, but in fact become a supporter of Philip of Swabia, contributing to the war effort and becoming the most important prince-elector of the realm.
- September 28, 1208, Philip of Swabia accepts the surrender of Otto of Brunswick, executing him thereafter. Philip then proceeds to assert his authority in both the northern German states and in Italy, where in his absence, the Sicilians had once again rebelled against Staufen rule. Philip left for Palermo while leaving King Ottokar I of Bohemia to aid in pacifying the northern German princes.
- 1208, Alexios Komnenos and his younger brother David rebel against the authority of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios III Angelos, who had lavishly squandered the Byzantine fortune on his own pleasure palaces. They occupy Trebizond, and from there establish the Empire of Trebizond against Byzantine authority. Facing an imminent invasion by the Byzantine army, Trebizond turned to Genoa and Venice to protect the state and the Italian commercial interests in the region. The Byzantine Empire recognizes Trebizond independence, and Italian merchants increased business expansion in the region.
- April, 1209, the Pope Marinus III is forced to step down by riots in Rome, and lack of support amongst the Papal Curia. In his stead, a young, aggressive Pope takes the seat by the name of Pope Innocent III. Innocent makes it clear to the Papal See that he intends to reverse the concessions to the Emperor and establish the Papacy as once again the most influential organization in Christendom.
- February 4, 1210, Pope Innocent III immediately excommunicates Philip, Holy Roman Emperor and releases all of his subjects from their responsibilities to the King of the Romans. Philip II immediately declares war against the Papacy, and Sicily subsequently revolts.
- December, 1210, Philip II Augustus, quickly losing ground in north Italy to Philip II Augustus, called on the powers of Philip II Augustus to lead a coalition of forces to depose Philip, Holy Roman Emperor. Philip II Augustus of France, who had been an ally to Philip of Swabia in his wars to hold the crown of the King of the Romans, now feared a united and hereditary Emperor under the Hohenstaufens. He declared war against the Emperor and moved through Burgundy to come to the Pope's aid in Italy.
- December, 1211, King John makes war with Philip II of France in the hopes of gaining Normandy while Philip II combats Philip of Swabia in Italy. Pope Innocent III excommunicates King John.
- 1213, Alexios III Angelos faces a revolution led by the wealthy nobleman Theodore Laskaris, who had married Emperor Alexios' daughter in 1198. Alexios was deposed, and Theodore began a process of centralization and assertion of Byzantine authority in the East.
- 1213, King John launches an unsuccessful attack on French-controlled Normandy. This was largely due to the lack of baronial support in England, and the unrest felt across the Angevin Empire.
- 1214, King Alfonso IX of Leon, now having effective control of the northern parts of Castile, launches a campaign to take parts of Galicia from King Sancho of Portgual.
- January 9, 1215, Pope Innocent III gathers an army from the Papal domain and Sicilian contingents unloyal to Philip of Swabia, and combines forces with Philip II Augustus's army in Tuscany and marches against Philip, Holy Roman Emperor, encamped in the pro-Emperor Duchy of Spoleto.
- 1215, Theodore Laskaris in the Byzantine realm faces an intense invasion by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum against Sardis and neighboring provinces, after having lost Attalia to the Turks in the coup against his stepfather, Alexios III.
- November 26, 1215 at the Battle of Perugia, Philip of Swabia, Holy Roman Emperor and his army of 76,000 are defeated by Philip II of France and Pope Innocent III's army of 50,000. The Emperor dies in the retreat of his troops. Philip II thereby grants portions of Tuscany, Romagna, and most of the Duchy of Spoleto to the Papal realm, and returns to France.
- 1216, A number of barons of England revolt against the authority of King John, and march on London, marking the First Baronial Revolt.
- 1216, Sancho I of Portugal is slain in battle by Alfonso IX of Leon-Castile. His son, Alfonso II of Portugal takes the throne and drives back the Leonese invasion.
- August 12, 1217, A peace accords with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum is formed whereby Theodore Laskaris of the Byzantine Empire cedes Smyrna, Sardis, and Ephesus and the associated provinces to the Sultanate in exchange for peace. The Second Bulgarian Empire invades the Byzantines soon after the peace accords in an attempt to dominate the Balkans.
- 1217, King Alexander II of Scotland joins the First Baronial Revolt against King John, supporting the barons and frustrating King John's attempt to pacify the realm.
- 1218, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, is crowned at Cologne. Pope Innocent refuses to legitimize Frederick II's election and coronation as Holy Roman Emperor as he is the son of Henry VI, and another member of the Hohenstaufen line of Emperors. Frederick also still maintains the Roman Seal of 1193 is legitimate, further angering the Papacy.
- 1218, Alfonso IX of Leon-Castile dies of malaria, and Ferdinand III of Leon takes the throne of both Castile and Leon. He immediately sets about pacifying the revolting Castilians. The Almohad Caliphate invades.
- April, 1219, The Almohad Caliph Yusuf II's incompetence in the invasion of Leon-Castile and loss of Silves to the Portuguese is no longer tolerated by the governor of al-Andalus. The governor, ad-Adil revolts and has the Yusuf II killed in Seville. He thereby proclaims himself Caliph with the backing of many Iberian Morish nobles. The Almohad religious council in Marrakesh, reject his nomination and raise a rival caliph to the throne, dominating the Moroccan territory of the Almohads. Caliph ad-Adil, however, remains in Iberia and rules from Seville, rejecting all ties with the Marrakesh Almohads.
- 1220, Philip II Augustus dies while preparing an invasion of England, in support of the barons of England and Alexander II of Scotland. Louis VIII is made King and continues preparations for a French invasion.
- 1221, King John crushes a coalition of rebel barons and King Alexander II of Scotland at Norham, knocking Scotland out of the war and all but wiping out the rebel barons, who scattered and fled with their armies.
- 1221, Theodore Laskaris is challenged by Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria, who invades Larissa and northern Macedonia.
- March 10, 1222, James I of Aragon negotiates a treaty with Sancho of Navarre where he will inherit the throne of Navarre upon the latter's death.
- 1224, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor comes to an agreement with the Pope whereby the Pope will recognizes the Frederick II as the King of the Romans and Frederick II will lead a Fourth Crusade to0 retake the Holy Lands. The planned invasion will not go through Byzantine lands, as they declined to sponsor the expedition but will instead be launched from Cyprus to the coast of Egypt. However, the Pope still rejects the Roman Seal of 1193 as legitimate, only decrees Frederick II's election as Holy Roman Emperor legitimate.
- 1225. King John dies while defeating the last of the barons of the First Baronial Revolt. Henry III takes the throne and signs the Magna Carta to pacify the barons and end any support for Louis VIII of France's invasion of England.
- 1226, Louis VIII abandons his designs to conquer England, and instead prepares to join Frederick II on his crusade.
- 1228, Louis VIII and Frederick II set out from Messina, Sicily towards Cyprus and the Holy Land. They stopped to gather Venetian crusaders in Corfu before reaching Cyprus.
- July, 1229, Sancho of Navarre dies and James I of Aragon immediately occupied Navarre, forcing the nobles to recognize James I of Aragon as the King of Navarre as well. Iberia is now divided between Caliph Ad-Adil of the Seville Almohads Ferdinand III of Leon-Castile, Alfonso II of Portugal, and James I of Aragon. Caliph ad-Adil immediately sends secret envoys to Theobald IV of Champagne, the legitimate successor to Navarre, and the nobles of Navarre, stating that with their support, the Caliph would invade Aragon and force James I to recognize the independence of Navarre, and the kingship of Theobald. Theobald declines the alliance, but the nobles of Navarre give their support to the cause. The Caliph invades.
- 1230, The Caliph successfully captures Cuenca from James I of Aragon, however, James I easily subdues the nobles in Navarre, and heads south, avoiding the massive army of 200,000 that ad-Adil had amassed for the invasion. The Caliph, seeing an opportunity, ignores the forces of James I and pushes further into Aragon territory, marching on Zaragoza, the capital. James I sieges Valencia.
- December 29, 1230, Frederick II and Louis VIII land on Cyprus. They then proceed to attack Damietta, Egypt. The Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt al-Kamil is unable to defend Damietta, but gathers his forces to confront the Crusaders. The Crusaders, meanwhile, with their force of 40,000, took Damietta and began a slow march to Cairo. In addition, they sent envoys to the Sultan of the Seljuks of Rum, in Anatolia, who gladly attacked the Ayyubids in Syria.
- 1230, Pope Innocent III dies and Pope Gregory IX becomes his successor, despite Frederick II not being present to officially anoint Gregory as the Papal successor. Gregory insists the Papacy does not accept the Roman Seal of 1193.
- 1231, Caliph ad-Adil is unable to make inroads into Aragon. James I of Aragon captures Valencia. ad-Adil sues for peace and James accepts. According to the peace, holds Valencia while the Almohads remain in Cuenca, bordering Leon-Castile to the west.
- May, 1232, Theodore Laskaris concludes peace with Ivan Asen II, marrying the Bulgarian Tzar's daughter and concluding an alliance in the Balkans, whereby both parties would protect the Balkans from Hungarian or other Western European incursion. This was called the Treaty of Adrianople. Theodore Laskaris dies soon after the peace accords, his heir being John III Vatatzes.
- 1233, Ayyubid sultan al-Kamil offers to restore the majority of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and restore the walls of Jerusalem, if the crusaders would abandon their attack against Egypt. Despite the Knights Templar and other religious orders refusing this peace, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, accepts the peace accords, relinquishes Damietta and retreats to Cyprus, taking the bulk of the crusader armies with him. The Christian military orders are forced to do so as well. Louis VIII begins a return trip to France. Frederick II stays in Cyprus, guaranteeing al-Kamil would hold up his end of the treaty. Frederick II had married Yolande of Jerusalem, the heiress to the kingdom of Jerusalem, in 1225, as in the OTL, and therefore wanted to be crowned in Jerusalem himself as the king.
- 1234, The invasion by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum is repulsed by the Ayyubids. John III Vatazes invades the Seljuk Realm, reconquering Smyrna and Sardis, but unable to breach Attalia. The Seljuks make peace within the year and Emperor Vatatzes retains the western regions of Anatolia.
- 1234, Louis VIII dies on his return trip to France. He is succeeded by Louis IX.
- 1234, Ottokar I of Bohemia dies and is succeeded by his son, Wenceslaus I. Wenceslaus defends against an invasion by Frederick of Austria.
- 1236, Alfonso II of Portugal dies. His son, Sancho II of Portugal immediately takes the throne and begins preparations for war with the Ferdinand III of Leon, who had taken some Galician lands from his father.
- March, 1238, al-Kamil makes good on his promise and allows Crusader orders and nobles of the Fourth Crusade to take the lands of parts of the southern Levant as part of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. al-Kamil does not allow the crusaders to to retake lands in Syria and the upper Levant. Frederick II enters Jerusalem as a king and is made King of Jerusalem officially. al-Kamil attempts to stop a rebellion against his rule and against the concessions to the crusaders.
- October, 1239, Almohads invade Leon and are repulsed by Ferdinand III, who attacks and takes Cuenca. The Kingdom of Portugal invades and conquers all Galician lands from Leon while Leon is occupied in Cuenca.
- 1241, Mongolians invade Hungary, devastating the region, but taking little land in the process.
- 1241, Byzantine Emperor Vatatzes declares war on Venice to free Crete of its control. The Empire of Trebizond comes to the Venetian's aid, launching an army from Sinop to invade the Byzantine realm.
- 1242, al-Kamil, the sultan of Ayybid Egypt, is slain in battle in a civil war. The Ayyubid realm, from Cairo to Damascus, is engulfed in anarchy and civil war. The Kingdom of Jerusalem remains in a fragile state, but manages to repel various invasions by the many different Ayyubid invaders.
- 1242, Wenceslaus I of Bohemia has Frederick of Austria lose his legal hold on Austria and Styria. Wenceslaus invades with the backing of Hungary and Bavaria.
- Decmber 17, 1244, Pope Gregory calls on the Christian nations of Denmark, Sweden, Poland, and northern German states for a Northern Crusade against Prussia and its neighboring pagan nations, including Lithuania. The Livonian Order had already established a presence in Estonia, and began a southward push into pagan lands.
- 1244, Frederick II invades Lombardy in order to pacify rebelling Italian states who rejected his authority as Emperor. These unruly states are led by Milan.
- 1245, Byzantine Empire fails to free Crete of Venetian influence. Venice extends trade into the Black Sea region, most notably with the Empire of Trebizond. The great Tzar of Bulgaria, Ivan Asen II, dies. His successor is weak and is unable to repulse Mongolian invasions effectively. Byzantine influence in Bulgaria increases as a result.
- 1246, Bohemia takes over Austria and Styria, ending Frederick of Austria's hold on the region. Bohemia now controls a massive portion of Central Europe.
- 1246, Poland invades Lithuanian and Prussian territory with the aid of German mercenaries. The conquest ends in failure, with the Christian forces being unable to repel the effective Lithuanians and with only marginal success in Prussia. The Livonian Order in Estonia is also repelled, and the losses taken bring the Order to the point of collapse.
- 1248, The Ayyubid realm is united under As-Sahih, who invades the Kingdom of Jerusalem and makes deep inroads into the realm as far as Jaffa.
- February, 1248, Pope Gregory dies and is succeeded by Innocent IV, once again not approved by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Innocent IV excommunicates Frederick II and raises a Papal army to help the Lombardy Alliance defeat Frederick.
- 1249, Ferdinand of Leon invades the Almohad realm, reaching as far as Toledo, but being unable to take the city. The Almohads call on the Portuguese to attack Ferdinand, offering territorial concessions around Silves and southern Iberia. The Portuguese oblige and invade Leon-Castile, however the Kingdom first occupies Algarves and the lands ceded to them by the Almohads prior to their invasion.
- 1249, The Moroccan Almohads are sent into anarchy with the death of the Marrakesh Caliph. From the Mahgreb to Tunis, North Africa is in turmoil.
- 1250, Ottokar II of Bohemia inherits Bohemia, Moravia, and Austria.
- August, 1251, Frederick II successfully suppresses the Lombardy Alliance, and marches against the Papal armies under Innocent IV.
- January, 1252, Innocent IV makes peace with the Holy Roman Empire, and calls on a Fifth Crusade to defeat the Ayyubids attacking the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Louis IX of France begins preparations to join and lead this crusade. Innocent IV still denies the validity of the Roman Seal of 1193.
- 1252, The Byzantine Empire invades the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. The Seljuks are also invaded by the Mongols at the same time once again. Though they defeat the Byzantines, the Seljuks effectively begin to lose control of Anatolia and become vassals to the Mongols.
- 1253, The Kingdom of Hungary, effectively recovering from the Mongol invasions, invades the Kingdom of Serbia, making it a client state and pitting it against the Byzantine-dominated Bulgarian Tzardom.
- 1255, The Portuguese Kingdom takes Zamora from the Kingdom of Leon-Castile. The two Kingdoms come to peace after Leon-Castile officially cedes Zamora and Badajoz. The Kingdom of Portugal begins sending increased numbers of settlers to these cities and provinces.
- 1257, Louis IX of France reaches Acre, in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He immediately moves south to confront the Ayyubids.
- 1257, The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a religiously pluralistic realm, is formed and sends ambassadors to the surrounding states of Novgorod, the Mongols, Poland, Denmark, Sweden, and the Holy Roman Emperor. It maintains and announces official effective hegemonic domain over the Baltic pagan lands. It defeats the Livonian Order in Estonia and dissolves it completely.
- 1258, The Mongols invade the Middle East farther after sacking Baghdad.
- 1259, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, dies, and is succeeded by his son, Conrad IV in Germany. The Kingdom of Jerusalem elects Baldwin of Tyre as its king instead of Conrad IV, causing a civil war within the state.
- 1259, Louis IX defeats and kills the Ayyubid Sultan at the Siege of Kerak. The Ayyubid realm is once again thrown into anarchy. Louis IX returns to France after having successfully defended the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Kingdom of Jerusalem ends its civil war with Baldwin of Tyre as its king.
- 1259, Shortly after Louis IX departs, a Mongol ambassador arrives in Jerusalem ordering the kingdom to submit to Mongol authority and allow the Mongol armies to pass through the kingdom's lands in order to reach the Ayyubids in Egypt. The kingdom begrudgingly accepts but also contributes forces to the Mongol army as they begin their advance into Egypt.
- December, 1260, Shajar al-Durr becomes Sultana of the Ayyubid realm after having been married to the previous Sultan of Ayyub. She makes the Mamluks the effective rulers of the Ayyubid Sultanate in Egypt. She marries Qutuz of the Mamluks and rules as equal with him. Mamluk Sultanate then declares war on the Kingdom of Jerusalem and invades to face the kingdom and Mongol's approaching army.
- June 15, 1260, At the Battle of Hebron, the Mamluk forces defeat the combined forces of the Mongols and Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Kingdom of Jerusalem cedes Gaza to the Mamluks. The Mamluks hold southern Jordan up to Kerak. The Mongols hold Damascus and the majority of Syria.
- 1261, The Marinids conquer the Moroccan Almohads, and begin a push against the Almohad Caliphs of Spain.
- 1261, Pope Innocent IV dies and is replaced by a Pope once again not anointed by the Holy Roman Emperor.
- 1262, The Hungarians invade Wallachia, controlled by the Byzantine protectorate, Bulgaria. Serbia invades northern Macedonia and pushes into Byzantine territory.
- 1264, Henry III of England pacifies Gascony and prepares an invasion of France from Gascony to Brittany.
- 1265, Byzantine Empire repels the Serbian invasions, but the Bulgarians lose Wallachia to the Hungarians.
- 1266, Grand Duchy of Lithuania officially adopts Christianity, though the general populace outside the royal families remain largely polytheistic.
- 1266, The Pope rejects the Roman Seal of 1193, decreeing it once again void. He once again excommunicates the Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad IV, and calls on Charles of Anjou to take the throne of Sicily. Charles of Anjou launches an invasion from southern France. Conrad IV invades Italy.
- 1267, Louis IX invades Conrad's domains in Germany, pushing as far as Mainz in Germany.
- 1268, Henry III invades Poitou and western France, hoping to conquer as up through Brittany.
- September 30, 1269, Conrad IV reaches Sicily, and confronts Charles of Anjou at the Siege of Syracuse. Charles of Anjou is killed, and the Hohenstaufen line remains firmly entrenched in Sicily.
- 1269, Henry III of England takes Poitou, but is unable to recover Brittany or Normandy as the Second Baronial Revolt occurs at this time in England.
- 1269, Louis IX dies while campaigning in Germany. He is succeeded by Philip III, who remains at war with the Holy Roman Empire.
- 1270, Henry III rejects the proposals by the rebel barons in England to create a council of barons to run and administer England, with the King of England having a far reduced importance. He attacks the rebels at Leicester, led by Simon de Montfort. Henry III loses the battle of Battle of Leicester, and Montfort follows the retreating royalist forces to London.
- 1271, Philip III retakes Poitou from the English, who are unable to defend their continental holdings due to the rebellion by several powerful English barons.
- 1271, The Almohads of Seville push out the Marinids from Iberia. The Kingdom of Aragon pleas with the Pope for a crusade against the moors.
- July, 1272, Hungary forms an alliance with the Duchy of Bavaria against the power of Ottokar II of Bohemia. At the Battle of Graz, Ottokar defeats the coalition. In addition, the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad IV officially recognizes Ottokar's ownership of the duchies of Austria and Styria in return for support of the Emperor against France.
- 1273, France declares peace with the Holy Roman Empire. The Papacy still refuses to recognize Conrad's authority and continues to excommunicate him.
- 1274, The Golden Horde, occupying much of the Russian steppe, makes raids into Bulgaria, further weakening the country, and reaching as far as Constantinople before they are turned back by the Byzantines.
- 1274, Henry III dies while campaigning against Montfort in England. His son, Edward I, takes the throne and gathers all royalist forces from across England to attack the rebels stationed in Northumbria. The rebel barons, under Montfort attempt to gain the military support of Alexander III of Scotland while stationed on the border of Scotland and England.
- March 25, 1275, Edward I loses the Battle of the River Tyne to the forces of Montfort and a timely arrival of Scottish troops.
- 1276, Conrad IV dies in Germany and his young son Conradin is elected King of the Romans in Frankfurt.
- March 12, 1278, The Treaty of Caffa is created by the Republic of Venice and the Golden Horde in the Crimean peninsula. The treaty stipulates that both powers will engage in free trade and Golden Horde major port cities in the Black Sea region will all have sanctioned Venetian merchant communities. In addition, both powers will defend one another against Bulgarian or Byzantine aggression.
- 1279, Montfort is killed by his own allied barons in England for being too reformist and granting himself too much power among the rebels. The remaining barons make peace with Edward I of England on the condition that the king set up a Parliament for the barons and clergy of the realm, much like Montfort's original plans, where they would check the power and authority of the king.
- 1281, Parliament meets for the first time as sanctioned by Edward I of England.
- 1282, Grand Duchy of Lithuania asks to be recognized as a Catholic nation by the Papacy. The Papacy declines due to the Grand Duchy's prior destruction of the Livonian Order and the repulsion of the Northern Crusade of 1244. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania still makes Catholicism its official religion of the monarchy and state, though in practice the state allows the native pagan religions as well as Christianity to thrive in peace.
- 1283, The Kingdom of Jerusalem repulses a Mamluk invasion that reaches as far as Jerusalem itself. The Mamluks are able to take Hebron and the lands near Jaffa, but are defeated in Syria at the Battle of Homs by the Mongols. The Kingdom of Jerusalem allies with the Mongols, and the Mongols vassalize what remained of the crusader states of Antioch and Tripoli.
- 1284, The Kingdom of Aragon and Leon-Castile launch a joint invasion of the Almohad domains. The King of Leon-Castile, Alfonso X, sieges Toledo. The Almohad Caliph, in a frantic attempt to preserve his realm, grants the King of Portugal further Almohad lands in the south of Iberia in exchange for Portugal's assistance against Leon-Castile. Portugal invades and pushes towards the Leonese heartland in the north, before being turned back. The Leon-Castile armies invade Galicia. The King of Aragon takes the coastal cities and surrounding regions of Murcia, conquering as far south as Cartagena. The Almohad Caliph makes peace with Aragon, then counters Leon-Castile and invades the heartland of Leon-Castile while Portugal retakes Galicia.
- 1286, Leon-Castile cedes Galicia to the Portuguese, but repels the Almohads, making peace with them without taking Toledo.
- 1286, Ottokar II of Bohemia dies, leaving his son Wenceslaus II with a realm including Austria, Styria, Moravia, and Bohemia, as well as major holdings in Poland. Wenceslaus II invades Bavaria and the Palatinate, under the Wittelsbach dynasty.
- November, 1287, The Bulgarian Tzardom, under Byzantine direction, invades Wallachia and Serbia. The Kingdom of Hungary attacks Bulgaria in turn.
- October 2, 1288, Wenceslaus II fights and kills the Dukes of Lower and Upper Bavaria in the Battle of Landshut. Wenceslaus II claims Bavaria as well as the Wittelsbach Palatinate as his own.
- 1289, Rudolph I, Count of Habsburg leads a coalition of German dukes, margraves, and counts against Wenceslaus II, who would have control of multiple electors for the King of the Romans and a massive portion of the Holy Roman Empire were he to claim the Palatinate and Bavaria.
- 1290, Conradin, Holy Roman Emperor bans Wenceslaus II from holding the Palatinate or Upper Bavaria. Conradin instead grants the Palatinate to Rudolph of Habsburg, Lower Bavaria to Wenceslaus II, and Upper Bavaria to himself. Wenceslaus II obliges the Emperor, though reluctantly. Rudolph marries the late Wittelsbach Count of Palatinate's only surviving daughter.
- 1291, The Bulgarian Tzardom is unable to conquer Wallachia from the Hungarians. The Byzantines, however, do succeed in causing the Banate of Bosnia to revolt against Hungarian rule. They then invade and topple the Serbian Kingdom, granting some lands to their buffer state, Bulgaria, while taking lands in southern and eastern Serbia, granting the Byzantines greater access to the Adriatic.
- 1293, The Grand Duchy of Lithuania invades the Kingdom of Poland, devastating Masovia and invading Poland as far as Krakow. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania demands lands held by the Polish that had been taken from the pagan Prussians on the Baltic.
- 1294, The Kingdom of Denmark invades and occupies northern Estonia, a land vassalized by the Lithuanians.
- April 13, 1294, The Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland agree to the Treaty at Plock, whereby the Duchy of Masovia would become a vassal to the Lithuanians, as well as the semi-independent Prussian lands and the Duchy of Pomeralia, as far as Gdansk. The Lithuanians would thereby defend the Polish from any further Mongol incursions from the Golden Horde.
- 1295, The Pope calls the Crusade of Lisbon, a crusade directed against Portugal, which had in frequent decades allied with the Seville Almohads and disrupted the southward push of the Christian states by attacking them when they were besieging the moors. The Kingdom of Leon-Castile joins as well as the Kingdom of Aragon. French and German mercenaries and nobles come from across Europe to fight Portuguese. The Almohads remain neutral and defend their borders.
- November 28, 1296, The Kingdom of Portugal repel initial attacks by the Leon-Castile armies at the Battle of Zamora. The King of Leon retreats to inner Leon-Castile. He waits for the arrival of the massive number of crusaders shipping in through the ports of the Kingdom of Aragon.
February 9, 1297, After years of a struggle between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papal authority, involving many excommunications and invasions of the Holy See, the last Pope to have rejected completely the Roman Seal of 1193 dies and a Papal Curia is called to elect a new Pope. The Curia, for the first time since the Roman Seal of 1193, calls the Holy Roman Emperor, Conradin, to sanction their election of the new Pope. Tensions between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire decrease, and the King of the Romans for the first time officially anoints the Pope. The Pope, taking the title Celestine VI, officially recognizes the Roman Seal of 1193, the first Pope to do so since the Pope Marinus III who was elected under the pressure of the King of the Romans' army.