The Main Plot
In 1921 promising German theoretical physicist Albert Einstein dies in his first visit to the USA. He never makes contact with Ernest Rutherford or Leó Szilárd and the Manhattan Project is never born. This means that nuclear weapons are not invented in 1945. Instead the USA succesfully tests a nuclear bomb in 1955, shortly followed by the Soviet Union in 1957. Thermonuclear weapons are only tested in 1961 by the Soviets with the US tests in 1962. The number of nuclear weapons of both the USA and the USSR stay in the thousands. The UK only manages to test one in the 1970's followed by France and China. However their nukes never reach even a three-digit figure. Nuclear warfare is very straightforward. Only ballistic missiles (tested in the 70's) can carry thermo-nukes. The smaller ones rely on strategic bombers. This means that billions are not wasted on arrays of ICBM's or missile defenses. The Soviet Union does not go through economic recession and does not dissolve. But the presence of so few nukes mean that the Cold War tensions are very greatly reduced and the Cold War really does end in the 1990's.
1921: Einstein died in a confusing episode in USA, in his first visit to that country.
The rumor of the death of Einstein ran around the scientific community of Europe and get down the validation of civil rights & security of science in the USA. Some people say US Government pushed Einstein to get into the Science Defense Ministery but the peaceful reget that an become in a " of the
1933: Leo Szilárd fled to London to escape Nazi persecution, where he read an article written by Ernest Rutherford in The Times which rejected the possibility of using atomic energy for practical purposes except maybe for developing an alternative fuel source.
1934: Stalin cancels the purges.
1936: Spanish Civil War. The war ends in 1937 with a fascist victory, due to no foreign support for the Republicans.
World War II
World War II starts on 1 March 1939 with the German invasion of Poland. Two days later, Britain and France declare war on Germany. After two months of phoney war, Germany launches its Blitzkrieg offensive against the Low Countries and France. Italy and Spain also attack from the south. By Autumn, France has fallen along with Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands and Luxemburg. The Battle of Dunkirk ends in a British massacre. Out of nearly 320,000 troops only 80,000 escape. With 80,000 killed, the remaining 160,000 troops are captured along with nearly all of the BEF's equipment. A collaborationalist French government is set up. The Luftwaffe begins to attack British ships in the English channel and raid the English coastline. On December 7, Imperial Japan launches a massive surprise attack on the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. All three American carriers are sunk along with a third of the entire Fleet. The next day, the US declares war on Japan and its allies of the Axis.
From the fall of France to the spring of 1940, the Battle of Britain is fought. The fewer fighters of the RAF are unable to stand up to the combined air forces of Germany, Spain, Italy and collaborationalist France. In March 1940, Operation Sealion, the invasion of Great Britain, commences. Although bolstered by US forces, the British are unable to stop the Axis onslaught, due to the loss of all their heavy equipment at Dunkirk. The arrival of US forces stop the Axis forces under Rommel from capturing the Suez canal, although just barely and at heavy casualties. By October, London has fallen. A third of Great Britain is now under Nazi control, with another third under near-constant bombardment by Axis bombers.
In North Africa, the US and British forces although relatively equal to the Axis in numbers, they are inferior in terms of tactics and weaponry. The Axis slowly fought their way to the Suez canal, where ferocious fighting ended in Axis victory after a week.
By the spring of 1941, the war was going very well for the Germans. Britain was being invaded and was certain to fall within a few years of fighting. In Africa, Axis forces were crossing the Suez Canal despite the unexpected resistance by local Arab fighters. In the Pacific, the US had withdrawn its fleet to the West Coast. Hawaii had been invaded and captured, and the Japanese were not getting close enough to threaten India and Australia. Hitler was confident of victory, and thus on the 23rd of March, Operation Barbarossa began. But, it became clear from the first day that things were not going well. German planners had taken it for granted that it would take just a day to break the Soviet forces along the border. This was not the case, since the Soviets were more than prepared. There was a border buffer zone of 20-30 km inwards and this area was truly no-mans land. Apart from access roads, the entire land leading to the frontier was mined. The frontier itself was a formidable obstacle. Built similar to the Maginot line or the Siegfried Line, the Soviet border was a network of camouflaged bunkers, guardhouses, trenches and other installations. Instead of one day, it took one whole week for the first real break to appear, and another week for a front to be finally. By that time, the Soviets had already mobilised their formidable front-line defenses and had begun to call upon their vast manpower reserves.
Although facing unbelievably tough resistance and suffering many casualties, the Axis were able to grind their way forward. By autumn, German troops who had been expected to have reached the Urals by winter, were only gathering outside Minsk. The Soviets, who had previously traded space for time, decided to make a stand. A superb diversionary action meant that the bulk of the German Army Group Central drove straight into a well-prepared Soviet trap. As soon as the Germans who had run out of momentum stopped to gain steam, the Soviet counterattack commenced. In one of the most of unexpected routs of history, the Germans were pushed back almost to two-thirds the distance they had covered until then, before the line stabilised. With winter fast approaching, the Germans decided to stand their ground and wait for the spring thaw. However, the Soviets had other ideas.
Meanwhile, in Britain, the German summer offensive commenced. Although they did manage to capture up to two-fifth's of Great Britain, they took heavy casualties. By then, the Luftwaffe was able to bomb all of the island, inflicting heavy civilian casualties. During this time, with Axis support, Northern Ireland had seceded and Ireland was unified, although the British government refused to recognize a united Ireland.
When winter came, the Germans who had no winter clothing, and whose equipment could not function in the cold, were caught completely off-guard by the massive Soviet counter attack. The Soviet Air Force was the biggest surprise, as its fighters and bombers made life like hell for the Germans.
In 1942, the Soviet chief-of staff Mikhail Tuchavesky had calculates that the Germans could only launch one massive thrust, So he decided to continue the policies of scorched earth and trading space for time. By the spring the Germans had regained the land they had lost to the Soviet counterattacks and had begun to push south towards the Crimea. By November they had began to attack Kiev, to capture the ancient capital and gain access to the east bank of the Dnepr. The Battle of Kiev, would be written down in history as the biggest and bloodiest battle in history. After a stunning victory over the Axis, the Soviet's finally went on the offensive forcing the Germans out of the territories they had acquired after so much effort.
On the other side, the tide was turning as the Germans were pushed back to the lines they held in 1940 (one-thirds of Great Britain). In the Pacific the US was starting to take the fight to the Japanese as the economy was turned to a war economy
After War World II
colonial to independence process
Moon landing hoax.
First Oil Price Rise
Expansion and Membership reform of the United Nations Security Council