In this timeline, the Prophet Muhammad died as a young boy in 580 AD and did not spread the doctrine of Islam. This timeline will show what the world will be like without Islam.
This is an open timeline, you can edit this if you like.
630 AD - Byzantine Emperor Heraclius has a dream of a new kingdom of the "circumcised man" being victorious against all its enemies. He is told by his advisors to behead every Jew in the kingdom. Since there is no news of Arabs being united by a new religion, Heraclius does this, but the Jews resist. The Sassanid Empire takes advantage of the upheaval, invading the Byzantine Empire with great support from Jewish soldiers; taking control of the Holy Land quickly and marching to sack Constantinople. As the war progresses, pagans and Christians with unorthodox beliefs and finally disaffected nobles, who seek to gain from the Empire's disintegration, join in the revolts. Yazdgerd III enlists help from Arioald, King of Lombardy. The Byzantine Empire collapses amidst revolt and invasion, and the Sassanid Empire gains control of the Byzantine Empire's eastern African possessions, Asian territory and Balkan territory in 645 AD. Constantinople is renamed Yazdgerdople. The Kingdom of Lombardy is given the entire Italian Peninsula at the end of the war and the surrounding islands of Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, the Balearic Islands and the Exarchate of Carthage. This event cemented the dominance of Arianism in Christianity.
Yazdgerd carries out a campaign to promote Zoroastrianism throughout the Empire. Christianity is allowed, but the creation of larger affiliations than local churches is banned. Any Catholic Church is required to remove that affiliation and even remove its mention from its name.
However, Heraclius' dream takes on a greater importance for the Jewish than the impetus for Heraclius' genocide. Many Jews see it as a prophesy for the founding of a Jewish nation. Jews begin moving to Palestine in great numbers. In 666 AD, there is a revolt, an attempt by Jews to create a new Jewish kingdom in Israel. This is violently suppressed, and Yazdgerd IV expels the Jews from his Empire. Most go to the Khazar Khanate.
Both the Sassanid and Lombard Empires send missionaries to proselytize their religions.
700 AD - Avars convert to Zoroastrianism.
710-715 AD - The Lombard and Sassanid Empires fight a war over Egypt. The Lombards are victorious.
734-735 AD - Sassanid Empire wins back part of Egypt. The Avar allies of the Sassanids take control of the northeast of Italy.
774 AD - Franks conquer the northern Italian Peninsula from the Lombards and eventually extend their control down the whole peninsula. Its Carthaginian colonies become the Kingdom of Carthage.
783-794 AD - Carthage, under King Avklidas, starts a war to capture the Holy Land to restore Christianity's control of Christ's birthplace, and receive assistance from the Franks in the first of the Crusades. Carthage takes over Persian Egypt and sets up the Kingdom of Jerusalem under a Christian Prince. A Greek revolt around this time takes control of the Balkan peninsula, including Yazdgerdople, and extends farther into Anatolia. Greece is Christian, but the people have been Arianized. The Catholic Church had become extinct a long time ago.
787 AD - The Khazar Khan, Szevbeld converts to Judaism. This is taken as a fulfillment of Heraclius' prophecy.
797-809 AD - The Khazar Khanate and the Sassanid and Avar Empires go to war with Greece, the Holy Land, Carthage and the Frankish Empire. The Khazars want control of the strait between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean to be able to invade the Holy Land and restore it to Judaism. The Sassanids want the land they lost back. The war ends with major Greek losses, Avar extending its territory south. The strait is given to the Khazars, who also capture the Holy Land. Anatolia is given to the Sassanids, who also get the lower half of the Italian Peninsula and Egypt. The Khazars and Jews, seeing themselves as one people after the conversion, establish Jerusalem as the capital of the Hebrew Empire and declare Hebrew their official language. This results in a large part of the Jewish diaspora "returning home".
809-815 AD - The Avar Empire goes to war with the Khazar Khanate and are able to take control of a portion of the Arabian Peninsula. Meanwhile, the Kingdom of Carthage goes south to conquer most of Northern Africa and other lands bordering the Atlantic Coast. Even though Christianity was the official religion, other religions were allowed to be practiced.
820-830 AD - The Kingdom of Carthage invaded the Lombard Empire and overtakes the empire. During that time, the Kingdom started construction on the Cathedral of Carthage. The goal was to build the biggest religious structure in the world. It started in 829 AD. The Kingdom of Carthage and the Franks joined an alliance to form a Holy Carthaginian Empire, combining the capitals in Africa and Europe.
830-900 AD - The Holy Carthaginian Empire starts to expand its borders into Europe, first overtaking the Saxons and then expanding into Britannia. During this period, the Cathedral of Carthage was completed. It fulfilled its goal and bore the title of biggest Cathedral in the world. Also during this period, the Sassanid Empire expands farther into India and north, into OTL Georgia.
900-950 AD - The Holy Carthaginian Empire begins plans on invading the city of Vienna, now a heavily fortified citadel due to recent military actions of various factions. At this time, the Holy Carthaginian Empire had over seven million souls living in Western Europe alone. Recruitment of soldiers and mercenaries began in 920 AD. Meanwhile, Arabia was in the midst of a long-lasting peace between the Avars and the Khazar Khagan. A treaty was signed in the ruins of ancient Aleppo, bringing a predetermined 50 years of peace. The agreement consisted of deals, ranging from money deals to entire land takeovers. Nonetheless, the Avars were given the upper hand in the deal. The treaty was signed on November 3, 936 AD, and the appropriate measures covered in the treaty were enforced ten days later.
In 940, the Holy Carthaginian Empire began to invade Britannia. They launched a fleet from Normandy and landed in Hastings. First, they where met with tough resistance from the natives, but in 942, they conquer what is now known as England. They put up fortifications near the Welsh and Scottish borders. During this time, they made Londinium the provisional capital and renamed Britannia to Albion.
950 - 1000 AD - With most of Europe and Northern Africa under control of the Holy Carthaginian Empire, it was decided to halt further expansion and consolidate current holdings. Also there is talk of making peace with the Sassind Empire. During this time the population in Europe is close to nine million.
In central Italy a Uprising Occurs as the HCE faces unexpected turmoil. The crisis is about the loss of Northeastern Italy to the Avars, and the continues threat of the Avars and the Sassanids, the revolt lasts three years and by 954 Carthaginian Italy is freed and Corsica and Sicily are captured, Soon in Persian greece similar revolts occur, leading to the Again Independent Byzantine empire as a Greek uprising leader enters to Khazar Yazdgerdople renaming it Constantinople, Rome and Byzantium ally against themselves as the Romans help the Greeks against the Persians and to show this they bring back to life the Catholicism, using Roman and Byzantine rites as the basis for the new rites as well as some retrieved by the Romans from France (which was Catholic prior to any other nation) and Ireland (strongly Christianized prior the 628 or in the process of being so.) The first Pope of the New Christendom is Arcadius I, soon the Spanish join the Catholic Neo Roman church and so follow the Irish, and eventually after the Frankish downfall springing up the Germanian Kingdom (centered in Augusta Vindelicia) and the Kingdom of Belgica (Regnum Belgae) centered in Noviomagus (Niejmegen) the last important series of war are the Balkan wars between Rome (Over Dalmatia and northeastern Italy) against the Avars and the Greeks (over Northern Thrace, Moesia and Dardania) against the Avars and the Khazars the later two losing most of its domains in the southern Balkans by 987 and the 1st Catholic Crusade in which the Greeks attack the Persians with aid of the Romans and Spanish, successfully bringing back the Levant to Christian Catholic hands, the Byzantines getting the Duchy of Antioch, the Romans getting the Kingdom of Tripolitania, the Spanish getting the Duchy of Cyrenaica, and the Kingdom of Alexandria, and in the center being the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Belgians invade Britannia, taking down the Frankish ruling in London and freeing most of western England and occupying it.
The Fall of Albion occurs, leaving only Cornuallium, While Britannia Proxima becomes part of the Regnum Belgae.The year 1000 AD comes with the Gigas Iubileum Omnibus or the Great Jubilee of All made in Constantinople where many Jews are deported to Khazaria.
1000 - 1050 ADThe Crisis in the Balkans continues, yet the Greek empire doesn't have more room left in there focus on securing the Region of Antioch and Eastern Anatolia, this being accelerated the arrival of the Turks in the western border and the Armenian revolt in 1019, With this, the presence of the Catholicism in the Levant is assured as the Armenians are strongly Christian and as an act of nationalistic tendency they recognize. The civil war occurring in France has no precedent as the Kingdom population revolts against the weakened Imperial Frankish government. The civil war ends in 1025 when Paris is set on fire by the duke Louis of Bouillon crowned king of burgundy, while Otto, a German soldier that was born in eastern France, is crowned King of Aquitaine after successfully defeating Louis and his army, after a seven year civil war in March third of 1025 a peace treaty is signed dividing France into several major regions such as Neustria, Aquitaine and Provence. with the fall of the French monarchy, France being a small territory encompassing at that moment only Normandy, French northeast and OTL central France, However, the unrest that France experienced didn't ended there, the war was over within the south, but what remained of France was still fighting, Soon the Kingdom of Ardennes was formed as well as the kingdom of Picardie, the french only holding the duchy of Aisne. While this, in the kingdom Burgundy the independence of the duchy of Cote d'Or occurs.
Normandy's loss occurs when the a group of Vikings taking advantage of the crisis in the rest of France enter the Region and conquer it easily, however their attempts to reach for Paris fail as the king of France and his remaining army defeats them in the battle of Eure-et-Loir. with this and a final campaign in 1046 the king of France Louis III invades the already weakened kingdoms, the only one surviving to the attack being Aquitaine whose king Otto I decides to recognize the nominal power of the king in Paris, finally forming the French Empire in a similar way the HRE.
In the east, the Germans have successfully defeated alongside the Romans the Avars. Gaining bit by bit part of Austria. After this crisis the small government of the Avars begins collapsing as their king died in the battle of Vindobona. Soon both Romanians form their own kingdom and the Hungarians gain control of Southern Dalmatia, Epirus and Pannonia rulling over the local Slavic peoples.
1050 - 1100 AD
The fall of the Frankish empire heavily accelerated by the small ethnicities within the empire and the still strong Catholicism ends the unique hope the Carthaginians had to reestablish a monarchic power completely over western Europe. This and the fact of the existence of the Spanish kingdom of Visigodia which had became catholic centuries before. Their last stands in Europe were the Balearic islands and southern Sardinia still held by the African empire. In 1052 a war sparks between Spain and Carthage over the control of both the Balearas and of the strait of Gibraltar eternally claimed by the Carthaginians but under de facto control of the Spanish the war lasts three years and involves the Romans, Greeks and Spanish against the Carthaginians
who initially defeat the Spanish in the battles over Baetica the most important one being the battle of Gades which initiates the invasion of the region by the Carthaginian army into central Spain. However, their invasion to the regions last a short period as the Romans launch their invasion in support of Spain and in order to get the remnants of Sardinia. Greece involvements starts after a flagship of the Greek navy is destroyed by the Carthaginian fleet after meeting with the Roman fleet in Cyrenaica. In late 1053 the Spanish domain of Cyrenaica, this initiates the involvement of the Greeks that declare war on them. After the campaigns of Tingis and Carthage the war ends with Auklidas V being killed in the battle of Thysdrus in May 17th of 1054, leaving Carthage at the mercy of Rome, Spain and Greece. The treaty of Carthage (1054 ad) divides means three great losses for Carthage, the first one being the loss of Mauritania Tingitana which is given to the Spanish, as well as the Balearic islands, second being the loss of Sardinia to Rome as well as the cession of a few territories to the roman empire as well as the peninsula right next to Carthage. And 3rd and final the cession to Greece of all Cyrenaican possessions rendering no left border to Egypt and no possibility to expand eastwards. The war allow no growth possible for the Carthaginians as well as a complete domination by the Romans in trade and the Spanish as well.
Greece's growth to the east was halted as the Persians and the Hungarians in Southern Dalmatia wouldn't allow growth to the north.