Newfoundland is a federal province of the Federal Republic of Canada that is one of the four Atlantic Provinces. Newfoundland is located on the Labrador Peninsula and on the island of Newfoundland, and is bordered by land by the Republic of Québec and by sea by the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean.

Newfoundland was a colony of the United Kingdom until 1917, when the collapse of the British Empire led to the formation of a "Newfoundland Free State." The Free State, which had no constitution and regarded itself merely as a successor to the Dominion of Newfoundland until the British monarchy could be restored, functioned effectively as an independent republic. Newfoundland, due to its geographic isolation, was not affected by the Canadian Civil War but was a participant at Drummondville, where it was forced to share its capital with the Canadian government-in-exile as part of the arrangement. The Great Depression and World War II led to radicalism in Newfoundland by republicans agitating for a "Constitutional option," leading to the 1946 elections which brought republicans to power led by Peter Cashin, eventually culminating in the 1949 Newfoundland Crisis in which the Proletarian Republic of Canada invaded Newfoundland in a surprise attack and annexed the Free State to Canada. After the fall of communism, Newfoundland suffered deep economic misfortune for much of the 1990s and early 2000s, losing as much as a third of its already small population to emigration, in particular to Nova Scotia and Ontario.

Newfoundland's economy is based on fishing, some agriculture and resource extraction on the mainland. It is the second-least populous Canadian province after Prince Edward Island.

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