Newfoundland is a North American country with an area of 405,212 sq km (156,500 sq mi). The province is located in the north-eastern of the continent and comprises two main parts: the island of Newfoundland and Labrador, which is located northwest of the island, in the Labrador Peninsula, where Quebec is also located. As of October 2010, the province's estimated population is 309,200. Approximately 94 percent of the province's population resides on the Island of Newfoundland (including its associated smaller islands), of which over half live on the Avalon Peninsula. The Island of Newfoundland has its own dialects of English, French, and Irish. The English dialect in Labrador is similar to that of Newfoundland. Labrador also has its own dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut.
Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is home to nearly 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.
The name Newfoundland is derived from English as "New Found Land" (a translation from the Latin Terra Nova). The origin of Labrador is uncertain; most authorities credit it to João Fernandes Lavrador, a Portuguese explorer, and lavrador a title meaning "landholder".
The land that is now Newfoundland was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. became independent on March 31, 1949.
Newfoundland is a federal state that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state.It is a member of the G7, G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.