New Spain
Vireinato de Nueva España
— Viceroyalty of the Spanish Kingdom
Timeline: Cromwell the Great

OTL equivalent: Mexico, New Granada, Central America, Cuba, New Mexico, California, Texas, Oregon, Arizona, Florida, and East Indies.
Flag of Cross of Burgundy
Naval ensign of the Kingdom of Spain
Map of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
Territories of the Viceroyalty of New Spain

Plus Ultra (Latin)
("Further Beyond")

Anthem "Marcha Real (Royal March)"
(and largest city)
Ciudad de México (Mexico City)
  others Nahuatl, Mayan, Indigenous languages, Philippine languages
Religion Roman Catholic
Ethnic groups
European (Spanish)
  others Native Americans and Philippines
Government Colony of the Kingdom of Spain
Established 1521
Currency Spanish dollar (real de ocho), Real and Maravedí

New Spain (Spanish: Nueva España) is a Spanish colony in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, and following additional conquests, it was made a viceroyalty (Spanish: virreinato) in 1535. The first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas, it comprises Mexico, Central America, the Spanish West Indies, Florida, and eventually, the Philippines and other Pacific islands.

Organization of New Spain

The vast territory of New Spain is organized as follows:

  • Royal audiencias of
    • Santo Domingo (1511, effective 1526, predated the Viceroyalty)
    • Mexico (1527, predated the Viceroyalty)
    • Panama (1st one, 1538–1543)
    • Guatemala (1543)
    • Guadalajara (1548)
    • Manila (1583)
  • Captaincies General of
    • Santo Domingo (1535)
    • Philippines (1574)
    • Puerto Rico (1580)
    • Cuba (1607), included Spanish Florida, or La Florida, in North America
    • Guatemala (1609)
    • Yucatán (1617)