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The Republic of New South Wales, or New South Wales as it is commonly referred to (often abbreviated to NSW), is a sovereign state located in the south-east of the Australian continent, as well as on the South Island of New Zealand. On the Australian mainland, it is bordered to the South by the French province of Terre Napoleon, and to the West and North by the Aboriginal State.
New South Wales gained independence from Great Britain after a convict rebellion brought down the colonial government in 1804. Since then, the country has seen a massive influx of immigrants from Ireland, and more recently, from Eastern Asia and Africa. New South Wales is a highly developed country with a strong economy, fueled by the mining, farming and manufacturing industries. It has the sixth-highest income per capita, and is in the top ten of the world's largest economies. New South Wales is part of the Fraternite des Nations (FN) , and was the founder of the Organisation of Australasian Nations (OAN).
The land now known as New South Wales has been inhabited by Indigenous Australians, or Aborigines, for over 40,000 years. Its existence was first brought to the attention of Europeans by the 1770 expedition of James Cook, who mapped the entire Eastern coast of Australia, which he named New South Wales, and claimed it for Great Britain.
In 1788, a fleet of eleven ships carrying convicts, soldiers, and settlers established a British penal colony at Sydney Cove. The colony grew over the following sixteen years with the arrival of more convicts and settlers from the British Isles. A large proportion of convicts were Irish political prisoners and exiles.
In 1804, in what would become known as the Castle Hill Convict Revolution, hundreds of convicts rebelled against the colonial government. They defeated the colonial military on the 4th of March at the Second Battle of Vinegar Hill, and declared the Republic two days later.
Military and economic assistance from the French, who were eager to have the British out of New South Wales, came early the next year. This assistance helped the New South Welsh defeat an attempted re-takeover of the country in early 1807.
After the fall of the United Kingdom in 1813, the NSW government assisted Irish families in immigrating. Over the course of the Nineteenth Century, over one million would leave Ireland, suffering as it was from economic depression and famines, in the hope of finding prosperity in the "New Ireland" in the Southern Hemisphere. Many new arrivals in Sydney settled inland, establishing sheep and cattle stations in the lush countryside.
In 1845, NSW engaged in a short war against the Van Diemen's Land for sovereignty over Norfolk Island . The war and subsequent defeat led to a coup by military leaders. Admiral William Hobson led the country during twenty-four years of military rule. During his reign, the New South Welsh population underwent massive growth due to the 1851 gold rush in Terre Napoleon. Many unlucky prospectors moved from the goldfields to New South Wales to try their luck as drovers.
The establishment in the southern island of New Zealand of the New Munster Republic by a small group of Irish and Scottish pioneers in 1850 caused only mild interest in Sydney. However, as attacks from the local Maoris became more and more frequent, the fledgling country's president called on New South Wales for protection. Hobson, pleased of a war to distract the growing New South Welsh population from his government's undemocratic nature, led a large force to "rescue" New Ireland from the "native hordes". After a three year war, a treaty was signed with the Maoris, and New Munster joined New South Wales as an autonomous republic.
In 1869 Hobson was toppled by a group of army officers led by Brigadier Patrick Jennings, who were dissatisfied with Hobson's perceived bias towards the navy. Two years later, the junta violently suppressed a peaceful pro-democracy rally in Sydney. The Rocks Massacre, as it became known, sparked a series of nationwide strikes and protests which culminated in the restoration of democratic government in December 1871.
Expansion northward in the early part of the 20th century was halted by the Duchy of Warsaw, which had established colonies in and around Cape York. The Polish War (1901-1915) which ensued was a massive drain on the economy of the nation, and the New South Welsh had to admit a grudging defeat in 1916, giving up their settlements on the far north coast, and withdrawing their borders back to the city of Cunningham, on Moreton's Bay. Whilst it was a huge loss for the nation, the Polish War created a strong national spirit in New South Wales, which remains to this day.
New South Wales was dragged into the Asia-Pacific War by her ally France. Tens of thousands of New South Welshmen gave their lives for, essentially, another defeat. The post-war depression also hit New South Wales hard, with millions of workers out of a job. In 1960, the Socialist Party under Premier Jack Brabham gained government. Through economic reforms such as nationalisation of mines and making university free of charge, Brabham's government managed to reinvigorate the economy, bringing it up to the high standard it has today. In the 1970s, the nation's formerly racist immigration laws were changed to allow non-whites to migrate to New South Wales. Since then, hundreds of thousands of immigrants from East Asia and Africa have moved to New South Wales, adding considerably to the cultural diversity of the nation.
New South Wales is a parliamentary republic. The head of state is the President, currently Kerry O'Brien. The President of New South Wales is a largely ceremonial position. However it does possess some limited constitutional powers to use with absolute discretion. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term, and may be re-elected twice. Any New South Welsh citizen over the age of 18 can run for President. First, however, they must receive one hundred nominations from eligible voters, and submit them, along with a written nomination, to the New South Wales Electoral Commission.
The New South Welsh Parliament, the People's Assembly, is unicameral. There are 121 seats, each representing an electorate. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party holding the majority in the parliament. The current Prime Minister is Paddy Laylor, leader of the Labor Party, which forms a coalition government with the Communists and the Maori Party.
Voting is preferential, and compulsory for all citizens over eighteen years of age. Elections for Parliament are held approximately every three years, and elections for President are held every five.
The Constitution of New South Wales gives citizens the right to "create and become a member of any political party they so wish." As a result of this, there are a multitude of political parties in modern New South Wales, representing many varied interest groups. The main parties are the Labour Party and the Liberal party; however, there are also Greens, Communist, Democrat, Expansionist, and Maori parties.
Military and Foreign Relations
The Military of New South Wales has its origins in the group of convicts who took part in the rebellion in 1804.
Whilst not large, the military of NSW is technologically sophisticated, and has the capabilities to send contingents overseas for peacekeeping missions, such as the current mission in Neapolitan Africa.
The military is made up of three arms: the New South Welsh Army (NSWA), the New South Welsh Navy (NSWN), and the New South Welsh Air Force (NSWAF). The President is the titular Commander in Chief. However, a Captain General is appointed from one of the arms for the day-to-day running of the military.
The foreign policy of New South Wales is centered on maintaining the balance of power in the Asia-Pacific region. The Republic is strongly aligned with the French Empire, with which it shares its southern border. Close cultural and diplomatic ties exist with the Republic of Ireland, as a result of the large number of Irish-descended people in New South Wales. As a member of the FN, NSW takes part in peacekeeping missions around the world.
Tensions run high between New South Wales and the Duchy of Warsaw, as well as with the Sino-Japanese Empire. NSW does not have embassies in either country.