The empire of New Rome was founded in 1823. Gioacchino, the last king of Italy, had adopted the general Alessandro Napoleoni and appointed him successor, since Gioacchino had no children. Napoleoni declared himself New Roman Emperor Alessandro I. He had many daring plans, like uniting the lands of the old Roman Empire (in Western Europe at least), but also thought about new colonies.
To strengthen his rule, in 1824 he founded the Imperial-Catholic church, with himself as the head of it. He used the church as a tool to bring the former French and Spanish colonies better under his heel. Priests who denied the oath on his person were expelled or incarcerated.