New Kamchatka (Russian: Новая Камчатка, Novaya Kamchatka; Spanish: Nueva Kamchatka), officially as the Socialist Confederation of New Kamchatka, is a sovereign state located in Aphrodite Terra on planet Venus. The nation was initially established as a collection of settlements constructed by the Soviet Union, who successfully landed on Venus in 1985. Following the USSR's ratification of the Venus Treaty in 2000, four Soviet settlements and one Cuban settlement came together and declared their independence in early 2001 (thereby becoming the first sovereign state declared on another planet). Throughout the 2000s, New Kamchatka has developed itself into a democratic and socialist state with one of the largest economies on Venus.
Located within Atla Region in central Aphrodite Terra, New Kamchatka is notably mountainous and volcanically active (with Maat Mons being the highest peak within the nation). Most of the population is centered along the coast of Rusalka Mare, which hydrographically dominates the nation. New Kamchatka is located along the equator of Venus, which gives the region a tropical climate often compared to those of Brazil and Indonesia. The ecology of the region is rich and diverse, with the New Kamchatkan Koshmar (a large, centipede-like species) becoming something of a personification of the nation.
New Kamchatka is currently the most populous nation on Venus with over 800 thousand people living within its borders. The majority of the population was born on Earth, having immigrated mostly from the Soviet Union and Soviet friendly nations. The largest group of New Kamchatkans are ethnically Cuban and Russian, with many minority groups living across the nation. Russian and Spanish are the two official languages of the nation, though Russian is considered the de facto lingua franca of the whole nation.
The name New Kamchatka was coined by Soviet geologists in the early 1990s, and was named in honor of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East (which in turn was named after the native Kamchadal people). It is said the name came about do to the volcanic similarities to both Atla Regio and the Volcanoes of Kamchatka. The name was picked up by the Soviet settlers and quickly became a unified name for the settlements along the Rusalka coast, becoming official in 2001 as the name for the new nation.
The first landing site on Venus was named in memorial to cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin (who was the first man to travel into space). The settlement which sprang from the site gradually became known as Gagaringrad ("Gagarin's City" in Russian). The second settlement constructed on Venus was named Chaika (Russian for "seagull"), which was the call sign of Valentina Tereshkova during the Vostok 6 mission. The first cosmodrome constructed on Venus was named in honor of Sergei Korolev, who was the leading engineer of the Soviet Space Program throughout the 1950s and '60s. The name Vladivenera ("ruler of Venus" in Russian) would be selected as the name for the new capital city of New Kamchatka.
Not much was known about the surface of Venus prior to the 20th century as thick clouds and obstruction from the Sun made any Earth-based observations difficult. Detailed observations of the Venusian surface were finally achieved during the Space Race, first by radar imagery and then by direct imagery from interplanetary probes. The Soviet Union's Venera Program would be the first missions to successfully land on the surface of Venus and would explore in detail the area of Phoebe Regio (modern day Saigyo).
As the surface of Venus became more understood, the Soviet Union and the United States accelerated their space programs to included manned-missions to the planet. Thought the Americans took the lead with a manned-flyby of Venus in 1974, the Soviets would surpass the US with a manned-landing on the planet in July 1985. Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova would become the first person to set foot on another planet. The landing party included nine cosmonauts; including Tereshkova, her husband (Andriyan Nikolayev), and their 22 year-old daughter (Elena Andrianovna).
Unlike previous missions to the Moon, Venus' thick atmosphere prevented the cosmonauts from returning to Earth without a powerful rocket (which was unpractical to send with them). In essence, the first cosmonauts would also become the first settlers on another planet. Despite the Soviet Union's detailed exploration of Phoebe Regio decades prior, the area of Atla Regio would be selected to house the first manned-missions to Venus. The region was selected due to its located on the equator, which would protect the cosmonauts from severe weather (such as tropical cyclones) and because any future cosmodrome built in the region would make rocket launches cheaper (due to Venus' rotation).
By the 1990s, the Soviet Union formally opened their bases on Venus for civilian colonization. The initial landing sight would grow into the city of Gagaringrad, while a completely civilian settlement was constructed in the south, later to become Chaika. During this same time, the Soviet Union and the United States competed in a new race to launch a rocket out of the Venusian atmosphere, thereby opening up two-way travel between the planets. A site was chosen just south of the equator for the future Korolev Cosmodrome. Throughout the 1990s, many settlements were established across Aphrodite Terra, several of which were done in co-operation with several Soviet allies (such as Cuba and Vietnam). By the start of the new millennium, the Soviet settlements had a combined population well over 100,000.
The Soviet Union was among the signatories of the Venus Treaty in 1999, which settled growing conflicts over Venus and paved the way for the independence of New Kamchatka. Prior to which, the settlements were given de facto autonomy from the Soviet Union (due in most part to the vast distances involved). With the United States and other powers beginning to settle Venus, combined with the completion of the Korolev Cosmodrome in 1998, the USSR was beginning to tighten control over its settlements by the late 1990s. This caused tensions among many of the settlers (most of whom relocated to Venus to get away from Earth and the USSR). The Venus Treaty prohibited direct Earth control and assured autonomy for the settlers, and opened the door for full independence movements on the planet.
Beginning in late 2000, the residence of Gagaringrad and Vladivenera began talks for independence, and became the earliest proposal for a unified state along the Rusalka coast. Later in the year, a formal committee was established for a declaration of independence and a constitution, and opened itself to include other settlements in the area. Korolevsk, New Havana, and New Odessa were the only other settlements to support the merger, and this initially lead to tensions between the USSR and Cuba. The Soviets opposed the inclusion of Korolevsk as it included the only Soviet cosmodrome on Venus, while Cuba opposed losing their only settlement on Venus. The agreement to make the Korolev Cosmodrome an internationally territory and to compensate and allow continued Cuban co-operation ended these early tensions.
The five regions officially declared independence on March 17, 2001, as the Socialist Confederation of New Kamchatka (thereby becoming the first independent nation on Venus). A constitution was adopted a few months later, establishing the nation as a socialist state under free association with the Soviet Union back on Earth. Within weeks, elections were held across the nation. Valentina Tereshkova won the presidency with over 85% of the vote. One of the first acts done by New Kamchatka was to expand its territory to roughly its present day shape. The act was justified because they were an independent Venusian state and the wording of the Venus Treaty did not oppose such actions. Little opposition was given towards New Kamchatka, which lead to the standard of a Venusian nation expanding its territory upon independence.
The Socialist Confederation of New Kamchatka includes the westernmost portions of Atla Regio, which is a region located in eastern Aphrodite Terra. This region of Venus is noted for its geologic activity and large number of volcanoes. The largest of these volcanoes is Maat Mons, which rises over 5 kilometers (3 miles) above sea level (making it the highest volcano on Venus). Forming part of the New Kamchatkan border is Sapas Mons, which is half the height of Mount St. Helens in the United States. The large volcanoes Ongwuti Mons and Ozza Mons are not included within the territory of New Kamchatka.
The region of Atla Regio and the broader Rusalka Mare coast possesses a varied tropical climate, with temperatures averaging between 40 degrees Celsius (105 degrees Fahrenheit) and 15 degrees Celsius (60 degrees Fahrenheit). New Kamchatka is noted for its cloudy and rainy weather patterns. Though the nation's location along the equator helps deflect tropical cyclones from hitting most of the nation (excluding the northernmost portions), New Kamchatka is noted for its annual monsoons.
The ecology of New Kamchatka is quite alien in comparison with those of Earth. The region is covered in jungles and rainforests; with diverse ecosystems of trees, flowers, and large numbers of unique carnivorous plant species. The most noted species within the region is the koshmar — a centipede-like species whose size is more comparable to humans than insects on Earth. As taboo as it may be to some humans, koshmars have become companion animals for many New Kamchatkans and have emerged as a national personification of the nation. Much of the fauna within the nation have been physically compared to Earth amphibians, arthropods, fish, and reptiles.
Government and Politics
The constitution of the Socialist Confederation of New Kamchatka states that the nation is a socialist republic and a liberal democracy, with written protection to civil rights (freedom of the press, freedom of speech, etc.) and social economic rights (right to education, right to health, etc.).
The president of New Kamchatka is the head of state. They are democratically elected (using instant-runoff voting) to serve a maximum of two terms of 10 Venus-years (approximately six Earth-years). Only two individuals have serve the office: Valentina Tereshkova and incumbent Yuri Baturin.
The Supreme Soviet is the national legislature of the nation. The unicameral chamber is comprised of 150 seats, with half being democratically elected by single-member constituencies (using instant-runoff voting), and with the remaining half being filled proportionally based on a separate nation-wide vote. Following the most recent redistricting in the early 2010s, all of the nation's constituencies are to be drawn mathematically to avoid gerrymandering. Under a multi-party system, seven political parties currently have representation within the Supreme Soviet: the Communist Party, the Green Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, Partido Cubano, the Pirate Party, the Reform Party, and Venus First.
Armed Forces and Law Enforcement
Keeping with the Venus Treaty's push to keep Venus demilitarized, the Socialist Confederation of New Kamchatka doesn't possess a military. Instead, the armed forces of the nation only consists of Border Forces (Russian: Пограничные войска, Pogranichnyye voyska; Spanish: Fuerzas de frontera); which is divided among an Aerospace Guard, a Border Guard, and a Coast Guard. These forces are tasked with protecting the borders of the nation, prevent illegal crossings, prevent the transportation of contraband, and to protect the natural environment within the nation's territory. The Border Forces are a branch of the Directorate for State Security (colloquially known as the DGB), which is the national intelligence and security agency (the New Kamchatkan equivalent to the KGB).
Just as in the Soviet Union and many Eastern European nations, the civilian police of New Kamchatka are officially referred to as the militia (Russian: милиция, militsiya; Spanish: milicia). The name is mostly traditional and does not change their primary goals of enforcing the law and to protect the population. Militia agencies are established primarily on the local level; with the governorates, districts, and communities serving their own areas. The aforementioned DGB also operates as a nation-wide law enforcement organization (an equivalent to the FBI).
New Kamchatka has generally followed the policies of the Soviet Union in regards to civilian gun possession, though there has been steps to adopt more lenient policies. While the nation doesn't ban the right to keep and bear arms for all citizens, it does heavily regulate the types of firearms which can be possessed and for what purposes these firearms are to be used. For all intense and purposes, only those serving in the armed forces and the militia are permitted to carry firearms. For citizens, all firearms are to be registered with the federal government and licenses are to be issued for all gun possessions. Most citizens are limited to 10 firearms per person (though this does not apply for licensed gun collectors) and are generally denied licenses outside of hunting and sports purposes.
The Socialist Confederation of New Kamchatka is a federation currently comprised of nine governorates (Russian: губернии, gubernii; Spanish: gobernaciones) and one "Confederate District" (Конфедеративный Округ, Konfyedyerativnyy Okrug; Distrito Confederado). Each of the governorates are sovereign states which constitutionally have control over large tracts of territory (most of which is currently uninhabited) and are all named after their capital city.
The governorates and the Confederate District are subdivided into raions (районы, rayony); with the exception of New Havana, which is divided into municipalities (municipios), which are legally raions in all but name. In accordance with the constitution, new governorates can be established and admitted to the confederation only under the agreement of the parties involved (i.e., the provincial governments) and being finalized by the federal government. Since the nation's formation, four new governorates have been created from the founding five. There currently exist movements to establish new governorates from either existing territory or from the annexation of new territory.
- Brezhnevsk (Брежневск, Brézhnevsk)
- Chaika (Чайка, Chaika)
- Gagaringrad (Гагаринград, Gagaringrado)
- Korolevsk (Королёвск, Koroliovsk)
- Kosygindar (Косыгиндар, Kosygindar)
- Lomonosovsk (Ломоносовск, Lomonósovsk)
- New Havana (Новая Гавана, La Nueva Habana)
- New Odessa (Новая Одесса, Nueva Odessa)
- Uragansk (Ураганск, Uragansk)
- Confederate District
- Confederate District (Конфедеративный Округ, Distrito Confederado)
Atla Regio is believed to be very rich in minerals; with confirmed deposits of aluminium, copper, gold, iron, lead, nickle, silver, tin, titanium, uranium, and zinc. It is also believed that the region is rich in coal, natural gas, and petroleum; with studies suggesting the region is one of the largest oil reserves on the planet. Despite the Venus Treaty's limits on oil extraction, New Kamchatka has been slowly developing these industries over the past decade.
New Kamchatka is the most populous nation on Venus, with a population well over 800 thousand according to the most recent census. Most New Kamchatkans reside along the Rusalka Mare coast, with inland settlements being limited along rivers and railroads. The three largest cities are: Gagaringrad, Chaika, and Korolevsk; which together make up roughly a third of the nation's total population.
According to the most recent census, less than a fifth of the nation's population were born within the nation (let alone born on the planet). The vast majority of New Kamchatkans immigrated from Cuba and the Soviet Union. Others emigrated from Bulgaria, India, Mongolia, Romania, Slovakia, Syria, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia (among others). The majority of those who came from the USSR were ethnically Belarusian, Kazakh, Russian, Ukrainian, and Uzbek.
New Kamchatka officially recognizes two official languages: Russian and Spanish. All in all, Russian is generally considered the lingua franca of the entire nation, as the vast majority of New Kamchatkans have basic understanding of the language. Spanish is mostly spoken within the Confederate District, Lomonosovsk, and New Havana (making up the majority in the later). The largest minority languages within New Kamchatka include: Arabic, Bulgarian, English, Hindi, Mandarin, Polish, Romanian, Serbo-Croatian, and Ukrainian.
The constitution of New Kamchatka establishes the nation as an Atheist State in all matter concerning the government and state, while at the same time protecting the freedom of religion for all residence and religious organizations within the nation. The majority of New Kamchatkans declare themselves irreligious (including Agnostics and Atheists) or non-affiliated (including those who are spiritual but not religious). The largest religion worshiped within the nation is Christianity (with Catholics and Eastern Orthodox being the largest denominations). Scientologists are the fastest growing religious group within the nation, with New Kamchatka holding the second-largest Scientologist population on Venus (after the Scientological State). Other prominent groups include: Buddhists, Hindus, Jews, Muslims, and Neopagans.