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New Guinea, officially the Republic of New Guinea is a country in Oceania, occupying the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea and the nearby islands of the Bismarck Archipelago. The country is also one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically, and many undiscovered species of plants and animals are thought to exist in the interior of the islands.
Under the terms of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, after the start of World War I, Japan declared war on Germany on August 23, 1914 and participated in a joint operation with British forces in the Battle of Tsingtao to capture the German settlement in China's Shandong Province. The Imperial Japanese Navy was tasked with pursuing and destroying the German East Asiatic Squadron and protection of the shipping lanes for Allied commerce in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
During the course of this operation, the Japanese Navy seized the German possessions in Kaiser-Wilhelmsland and Bismarck Archipelago, while the British Navy seized the Solomon Islands, mostly without resistance, by October 1914.
After the war ended in 1918, the Treaty of Versailles provided for the division of Germany and the Central Powers' imperial possessions among the victorious Allies of World War I. In the Pacific, Japan gained German New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, and Kiautschou in China. German Samoa was assigned to New Zealand; the Solomon Islands and Nauru to Australia.During the Japanese Civil War, the territory was put under the status quo. The colonial administration in Kokopo retained and comprised mostly by former German officials that responsible to the Japanese Chrysanthemum Throne throughout the war. It was not until 1928 the territory formally administered by Japanese officials under the Nationalist government and the seat moved to Lae in mainland New Guinea.
Unlike Kwantung, Japanese New Guinea not incorporated as a part of the Japanese Realm in 1931 and remained being an overseas province until 1959. As the part of Great Economic Plan, New Guinea saw an intensive economic development and immigration programs. The agricultural industry became the main priority in colony. A number of political prisoners from Japanese Home Islands used as the forced labor for the government-sponsored plantations.
Due to the successful immigration policy before and during the war, the Japanese settlement in New Guinea started to grow an influence over local government and economy. In 1947, with the pressures from local Japanese settlers, New Guinea granted the right of self-government when the Congress of Japan issued the New Guinean Self-Government Law. New Guinea officially elevated from Japanese colony into the status of overseas province.
In 1959, the Congress of Japan passed the revisions for the 1947 New Guinea Self-Government Law that officially incorporated the islands into the Japanese Realm as an associated state. It was not until 1970 New Guinea gained its independence from Japan and declared as the Republic of New Guinea with Paul Antoki as its first President.