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Second American Revolt
Bpston had been the center of tension between Britain and the colonists for decades, and the Second American Revolt broke out here in April 1806. The Battle of Boston, fought between a mob led by John Quincy Adams and British soldiers, resulted in the defeat of the British and the execution of Governor William Hall as well as other other government officials. The rebels then took over Dorchester Heights and Bunker and Breed's Hill, effectively taking control of the city. Once this became apparent, the British soldiers left to help defeat other rebellions in New York and Virginia.
Adams got things back to normal in Boston, and sent out troops under Henry Dearborn to help the other New England colonies. Following the defeat of a British army in Concord, New Hampshire, delegates from the four colonies met in Hartford. The New England Declaration of Independence was adopted by the makeshift Congress on May 17, 1807. This date is now celebrated as New England's Independence Day.
New England, however, would have to prove herself to the other rebelling colonies. Conflicting claims between the nation and New York resulted in the Vermont War in 1807. Dearborn and the new New England Army successfully defeated the New Yorkers at Bennington and Burlington. Dearborn then lead a campaign into upstate New York, killing the commander of the New York armies, William Hull, in the Battle of Plattsburgh. Without a commander, New York signed a peace treaty, giving Vermont to New England and ending the war.
However, the British threat from Canada remained. Dearborn led a campaign through Maine and Nova Scotia, however he was defeated before he could reach the main goal of Halifax. The campaign resulted in the death of hundreds of New England and British soldiers. In 1810, Britain and New England signed a peace treaty, securing New England independence.
Era of Good Feelings
It is done! New England has secured her independence from the United Kingdom, and is now her own nation! - Boston World, May 25, 1810 edition
With the Second American Revolt over, life in the Republic of New England slowly returned to normal. The government was set up, with a House of Representatives and Senate. The election for president was to be held in November, and John Quincy Adams won in a landslide. The other positions were soon filled, and the government began to operate. Adams created the Federalist Party, which believed in modernizing the economy and good education. Following the ideas of Alexander Hamilton, a strong central government was formed, and a national bank was established. The debt owed to France and Spain was mostly paid off, and trade was created them. In a somewhat controversial move, Adams sought good relations and trade with Great Britain. This would prove to be a good thing, as Great Britain would become New England's greatest trading partner. The costly campaigns in New York and Canada resulted in the training of a permanent standing army. His policies would be continued by Rufus King, who was elected president in 1818.
As King's presidency continued, he and Adams evolved from a Federalist into a Whig. Without a strong leader, the Federalist Party splintered and disbanded. Most joined King and Adams, although a few joined the upstart Democratic Party, which was gaining support in Maine, which had become a state in 1820, and New Hampshire. Led by Benjamin Pierce, the Democrats obtained several government positions in the 1826 elections. Pierce lost to Daniel Webster, the Whig candidate, in the 1826 Presidential election. However, most of Congress was controlled by the Democrats, resulted in several of Webster's policies being stymied. This was the beginning of the Two Party System and the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Panic, Industries, and the War of 1832
As the war broke out between Piedmont and Britain, a few volunteer units went out to help the fighting. Most New Englanders, however, were opposed to help fight "Mr. Clay's War". New England merchants, riding on the economic boom created during the Era of Good Feelings, were against fighting with Great Britain, their greatest trading partner. President Daniel Webster, who was a good friend of Henry Clay, asked Congress to declare war on Britain in 1833. The House of Representatives voted 72-2 against, ending his idea. His War Hawkish personality and the people's anger about his elitism resulted in leaving a dark mark on the Whig Party. In the 1834 election, the Whig Party candidate Benjamin Williams Crowninshire lost to Joseph M. Harper, a Democrat from New Hampshire.
Harper and the Democrats attempted to get rid of the First National Bank, which Congress, led by the Whig Gideon Barstow, attempted to stop.