The New Delhi Trials were two separate war crimes tribunals held following the Pacific War, where generals of the Asian Powers were tried by representatives of the Allies for alleged war crimes, in particular the bombing of civilian targets, civilian massacres and the use of poison gas on civilians, all of which were strictly prohibited under multiple international conventions. The First New Delhi Trial, held in 1930-32 at the Gangestani capital, tried thirty-one Asian officers, including sixteen generals. All but nine were found guilty, some on dubious charges, and sentenced to death by hanging. At the Second New Delhi Trial (1935-36), five more Chinese generals were tried after having been sent to Gangestan by Japan after the Japanese had captured them on the battlefield in the Second Sino-Japanese War. The second round of trials were much less conclusive and were highly controversial, and four of the generals were acquitted.
The New Delhi Trials were extremely controversial internationally, as both Switzerland and France had encouraged the two belligerent powers to equally file charges against one another in one of the two nations that had been neutral in the conflict. When American officials asked Japan to turn over generals who had knowingly committed crimes, the Japanese refused, and an agreement to try captured non-Japanese officers at New Delhi was reached, without asking the consent of Japan's allies. Most of Japan's allies were infuriated by Japan's betrayal of their officers to what would likely result in a show trial, and this perceived betrayal was one of several direct causes of the Second Sino-Japanese War.