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New Caledonia (Russian: Новая Каледония, Novaya Kaledoniya), formally referred to as the Governorate of New Caledonia (Новокаледонская губерния, Novokaledonskaya guberniya), is a governorate of the Alaskan Democratic Federative Republic. Located in central Alaska, New Caledonia is bordered by Tongass in the north, Borealia and Idaho in the east, Columbia and Vancouver Island in the south, and the Queen Charlotte Islands in the west.
The area of New Caledonia was initially claimed both by the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom. The name New Caledonia was coined by the British, who named the region after the Roman name for Scotland (Caledonia). The Russians later included this area as part of their Oblast of New Russia. The dispute continued until the 1850s, when both empires agreed to share the territory. Joint administration ended with the Columbia Purchase of 1872, when the United Kingdom sold their remaining claims in the Pacific Northwest to Russia.
Throughout Russian rule and into the 20th Century, Finns and Scandinavians (mostly Norwegians) would settle within the region (many attributing its similar climate and geography to that of Scandinavia). Russian settlements were concentrated along the coast, while the remaining English settlers were centered closer to the Rocky Mountains. Due greatly to its demographic distribution, New Caledonia was one of the worst effected during the Alaskan Wars, when the Commonwealth of Columbia fought to annex the mostly Germanic territory. It wouldn't be until 1944 that New Caledonia was formally established into a governorate.