The New African War of Independence, also known as the Southern War in the United States, was a decolonization war waged by the New African Liberation Front against the United States and White supremacist militias. It began as the Civil Rights Movement in America became more militant. The New African Liberation Front was primarily led by Malcolm X, which served as the umbrella organization for a variety of groups advocating for Black self-determination, including the Black Liberation Army, which was led by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

The war began in 1968, shortly after the assassination of Martin Luther King. Race riots erupted across the country as Blacks burned down and looted cities. The riots were harshly suppressed by the US government in collusion with White nationalist organizations. Many Whites in both the North and the South launched counter pogroms, burning down Black neighborhoods and killing Blacks wherever they could find them. Thousands of Blacks fled south, where they were a majority. Violent clashes between Blacks and both White nationalist organizations and law enforcement soon began. The Black Liberation Army began raiding police stations for ammunition. Finally, on September 15th 1968, a four-man squad of BLA agents killed two police officers in a drive-by shooting in Stone Mountain, GA, in what became known as the Stone Mountain Ambush. President Lyndon Johnson ordered that 10,000 troops be sent to the South to quell the violence. On September 20th, the People's Republic of New Africa, led by Malcolm X, declared independence from the United States, gaining the support of a variety of Black celebrities.

The war was fought as a theater within the Cold War, with the New African rebels receiving millions of dollars in aid and weaponry from the Soviet Union, China, and the third world. The NALF was also a socialist organization. Being that the United States was waging a war in Vietnam as well, the BLA hoped to overstretch US forces, leading to a much quicker victory. Despite this, the war dragged on for over a decade, leading to thousands of deaths. It continued on for five more years after the end of the Vietnam war, until US President Jimmy Carter, a liberal reformist, sought to end the war and give the Blacks independence.

In 1980, a NALF delegation led by Malcolm X, Coretta Scott King, Jesse Jackson, and Huey P. Newton traveled to New York to sign a peace treaty with the US government. The People's Republic of New Africa was internationally recognized, and became a member of the United Nations.

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