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|Kingdom of the Netherlands|
Koninkrijk der NederlandenTimeline: Borgo
|Capital||Amsterdam, The Hague|
|Official languages||Dutch, French, German|
|Regional Languages||Walloon, Frisian, Low Saxon, Rhine Franconian|
|-||Prime Minister||Mark Rutte|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|-||Union of Utrecht||1579|
|-||Act of Abjuration||1581|
|-||Peace of Copenhagen||1816|
The Netherlands is a federal constitutional monarchy divided into 22 provinces: Drenthe, East Flanders, East Friesland, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Hainaut, Jülich, Liege, Limburg, Luxemburg, Namur, North Brabant, North Holland, Overijssel, South Brabant, South Holland, Trier, Utrecht, West Flanders and Zeeland.
The Netherlands emerged from the collection of territories ruled by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. After his death they passed to the Habsburg dynasty, under whom the seven northern provinces successfully broke away and achieved independence, forming the Dutch Republic. The southern provinces remained under Habsburg rule as the Spanish, and later Austrian Netherlands, until 1816.
The Peace of Copenhagen, ending the Polish Revolutionary Wars, transformed the Dutch Republic into the Kingdom of the Netherlands and annexed the Austrian Netherlands, the Prince-Bishopric of Liege, and East Friesland to it. In addition, a region on the left bank of the Rhine was placed under Dutch administration as the Rhenish Province, while remaining a part of the German Confederation. This province was separated from the Netherlands in 1849 when the German Confederation was transformed into the German Empire, but was re-acquired and annexed in 1919 following the First World War.