Kingdom of the Netherlands
Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Timeline: Borgo
Flag of the Netherlands.svg State Coat of Arms of the Netherlands.svg
Coat of arms
Nederlanden (Borgo).png
CapitalAmsterdam, The Hague
Official languages Dutch, French, German
Regional Languages Walloon, Frisian, Low Saxon, Rhine Franconian
 -  King Willem-Alexander
 -  Prime Minister Mark Rutte
Legislature States-General
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Representatives
 -  Union of Utrecht 1579 
 -  Act of Abjuration 1581 
 -  Peace of Copenhagen 1816 
 -  Rhineland Act 1919 
The Kingdom of the Netherlands is a sovereign state in western Europe, containing most of the region historically known as the Low Countries. It is bordered by France to the south, Germany to the east, and the North Sea to the north and west. 

The Netherlands is a federal constitutional monarchy divided into 22 provinces: Drenthe, East Flanders, East Friesland, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Hainaut, Jülich, Liege, Limburg, Luxemburg, Namur, North Brabant, North Holland, Overijssel, South Brabant, South Holland, Trier, Utrecht, West Flanders and Zeeland.

The Netherlands emerged from the collection of territories ruled by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. After his death they passed to the Habsburg dynasty, under whom the seven northern provinces successfully broke away and achieved independence, forming the Dutch Republic. The southern provinces remained under Habsburg rule as the Spanish, and later Austrian Netherlands, until 1816.

The Peace of Copenhagen, ending the Polish Revolutionary Wars, transformed the Dutch Republic into the Kingdom of the Netherlands and annexed the Austrian Netherlands, the Prince-Bishopric of Liege, and East Friesland to it. In addition, a region on the left bank of the Rhine was placed under Dutch administration as the Rhenish Province, while remaining a part of the German Confederation. This province was separated from the Netherlands in 1849 when the German Confederation was transformed into the German Empire, but was re-acquired and annexed in 1919 following the First World War.