This page lists all nations in the Saracen Jihad timeline. Nations are sorted by the era in which they formed and the continent in which they originated.

Medieval Period


Nation Capital Language Religion Dates Active Notes
Frankish Empire Tournai (431–508)

Paris (508–768)

Old Franconian,
Christianity 5th Century -
Kingdom of Asturias Cangas de Onis, San Martín del Rey Aurelio, Pravia, Oviedo Latin

Regional Languages

Christianity 718 -
Byzantine Empire Constantinople Latin (official until 620)

Greek (official after 620)

Christianity c. 330 -
Umayyad Flag Emirate of Córdoba Córdoba Classical Arabic, Berber, Mozarabic, Medieval Hebrew Islam 756 -

Middle East

Nation Capital Language Religion Dates Active Notes
Umayyad Flag Umayyad Caliphate Damascus Arabic (official) – Coptic, Greek, Persian (official in certain regions until the reign of Abd al-Malik)
Many regional languages
Islam 661 - 750 Collapsed after the time of the Third Fitna and the Abbasid Revolt, in which the Abbasids became rulers of the caliphate.
Black flag Abbasid Caliphate Damascus Arabic (official)
Many regional languages
Sunni Islam 750 -


Nation Capital Language Religion Dates Active Notes
Barghawata Not Specified Berber Indigenous religion

Khariji Islam

744 -
Sijilmasa Sijilmasa Berber Khariji Islam 744 -


Nation Capital Language Religion Dates Active Notes
Tang Dynasty Chang'an Middle Chinese Chinese Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion 618 -

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