Napoleon IV (16 March 1856 – 1 June 1919) was the last Emperor of France, ruling from 9 January 1873 to 30 November 1909. He was the son of Napoleon III, who founded the Second French Empire with a coup in 1851. Napoleon IV was the fourth in the line of the Bonaparte dynasty, and the last to rule France.
Napoleon IV was somewhat popular in the Empire, known for his various reforms, as well as his drive to help France become one of the greatest powers on Earth. He saw the continued growth of the French Navy, which was becoming on par with the British Royal Navy, and whose military force was becoming increasingly powerful. He also continued the task of growing France into a colonial Empire, with colonies across the globe.
Napoleon's drive was ultimately his downfall, in that his influence in an international crisis over the sovereignty of Morocco arguably caused the Great European War. In the final moments of the war, in 1909, Napoleon was overthrown by republican forces, arrested, and forced to flee to Italy to safety, where he lived the rest of his life.