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Napoléon IV (Napoleonic Age)

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Napoléon IV
Napoleon V.jpg
A photograph of the Emperor, early 1890s
Emperor of the French
Reign 4 June 1879 – 30 January 1909 (29 years, seven months, 26 days)
Coronation 23 March 1880
Notre-Dame de Paris, France
Predecessor Louis
Successor Henri I
Spouse Archduchess Gisela of Austria
Issue Henri, Prince Imperial
Full name
Napoléon Charles Jacques Henri Bonaparte
House Bonaparte
Father Charles Louis, Prince Imperial
Mother Thyra of Denmark
Born 1 June 1858
Tuileries Palace, Paris, France
Died 30 January 1909 (aged 50)
Burial 4 February 1909
Mausolée des Bonapartes, Paris, France
Religion Roman Catholic

Napoléon IV (born Napoléon Charles Jacques Henri Bonaparte; 1 June 1858 – 30 January 1909) was Emperor of the French from 4 June 1879, the date of the abdication of his older cousin Louis, to 30 January 1909, the date of his death. The fifth Emperor of the French, he reigned for over twenty-seven and a half years, making him the longest-reigning French monarch since his great-grandfather Napoléon I (who reigned for almost thirty-five and a half years). Though strikingly more conservative than his elder cousin and predecessor, he was, in the grand scheme of French politics, a center-right moderate. By the end of his reign, a few powers – though relatively minor – had been transferred to the French Parliament, beginning a period of liberalization of French Imperial politics that would continue throughout the 20th century. He was the last French monarch, and one of the last in the world, to personally lead his soldiers in battle during the ???? War in ????. A moderating force on the then-increasingly polarized French left and right, he is considered a strong ruler in French history that served as a stable rallying point after the autocratic tendencies of his uncle, Napoléon III, and the disastrously destabilizing liberal beliefs of his cousin. Historians have also considered him an able diplomat and, while lacking administrative skill, being adept at weighing the counsel of his advisors and choosing the best path for the Empire. His reign saw the peak of the Second Industrial Revolution, the Scramble for Africa, and the first decades of New Imperialism that gripped the Great Powers of the world. Napoléon died one of the victims of the infamous and devastating French Flu of 1908–09, just two days after his son and heir Henri, thereby passing the throne to his younger and more brash brother who bore the same name.

Biography

Early life

Crisis of 1879

Reign

???? War

French Flu of 1908-09 and death

Death

Legacy

Personality and traits


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