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The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Нахчыван Мухтар Республикасы, Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası; Russian: Нахичеванская Автономная Республика, Nakhichyevanskaya Avtonomnaya Ryespublika), colloquially known as Nakhchivan (Нахчыван, Naxçıvan; Нахичевань, Nakhichyevan'), is an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union (under the jurisdiction of Azerbaijan). Nakhchivan is a landlocked enclave of Azerbaijan and the Soviet Union; bordered by Armenia, Iran, and Turkey. The autonomous republic was established in 1921, due to its Azeri population being disconnected by their Armenian neighbors. Tensions in the area during the late 1980s caused Nakhchivan to declare independence in 1990 (the first area of the USSR to have done so). Independence was ultimately scrapped following Azerbaijan's decision to remain in the Soviet Union, as well as establishing peace talks between Armenia and Azerbaijan over their people and territories.
Nakhchivan has an Azerbaijani majority population, with Kurds and Russians making up the rest of the population. The Azerbaijani language is the only official language of the autonomous republic, though understanding of Russian is common. Shia Muslims form the majority of Nakhchivan, with Eastern Orthodoxy and Sunni Islam being minor players. The region holds generally close connections with neighboring Iran, in particular between the Azerbaijani population living in northern Iran.