~1550: Arab captains in the Red Sea start to equip their ships with European iron cannons, which are superior to the Chinese bronze cannons, start piracy in the Indian Ocean.

1551: The last Zahedid claimant for the throne of Persia is caught with his remaining followers and killed.

1556-65: The Triple Monarchy of England-Castille-Portugal declares war on the Rum-Seljuks, enraged over the fate of Rome. Savoy and Florence join the war.

1559: Rome reconquered by Christians; all the Muslims found there are massacred.

1562: Sea battle of Malta; Seljuk-Barbary fleet decimated.

1565: Peace of Ostia ends the second Occidental-Seljuk War. Seljuks give up Latium (to Florence) and the Marches, Algiers, Tunis and Sicily (to E-C-P). The Romans displaced ~20 years ago return in triumph. The victorious Italians demand that the Pope returns to Rome, which the French king denies.

1567-74: France, Venice and the HRE declare war on the weakened Seljuks.

1569: French land at Port Said, conquer the city.

1571: Seljuks conquer Port Said back.

1572: After another uprising of the Carbonari, Florence joins the war, attacks Naples.

1574: Peace of Krems (Austria). Seljuks have to cede Dalmatia to Venice, the county of Naples to Florence, Salzburg to Bavaria, Austria to Württemberg-Carinthia and western Hungary to France. François of Bourbon elected new king Ferenc I of Hungary.

1575: The army topples and kills sultan Kay Qubadh V after having lost two wars, replacing him with his son Mas'ud IV.

In the same year, Muslim refugees from Naples (mostly merchants replaced by the Florentines, but some scientists too) arrive in Constantinople. They bring the printing press, which was used until then only in Seljuk Italy (and Austria, which was Seljuk only for a few decades anyway). The mighty guilds of the calligraphers protest.

1577: A Seljuk-Omani fleet defeats a Chinese Treasure fleet, takes unbelievable riches with them.

1580-82: The former tributary Georgia is made a Seljuk province. Protests and uprisings are put down, not without cruelty.

1581: The sultan rules that the printing press may be used for government jobs only. This will lead in the long run to a better administration, higher literacy and wider spread science in the Seljuk empire.

1584: The young sultan makes treaties with Persia and Choresm, the other big Muslim powers, to be able to use his full power against the Europeans.

1585-87: Persia attacks Choresm, takes Chorasan back.

1586: Arab pirates take the Maledives, extend their radius.

1589: The young son of Choresm Shah Arslan III overthrows the Shah, his distant uncle, and kills him (and his son). He'll become one of Choresm's greatest rulers.

1591: Arab pirates capture several cities on Sri Lanka.

1599: Arslan IV introduces the printing press to Choresm.

Chaos TL in blocks
Earlier in time:

Muslim world 1500-1550

Muslim world


Later in time:

Muslim world 1600-1650

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