1302: After the defeat in the 1280s, Byzantium has retreated behind the Bosphorus and defended itself successfully from there, being safe for a while. The union with the Catholic church has been dissolved again, and despite of that and the toppling of emperor Andronikos II after said defeat, the country has enjoyed relative peace. Now however, the country is attacked by the ambitious Charles of Valois, who wants to become new Latin emperor. Thrace is overrun, and in their panic the Byzantines call the Rum-Seljuks for help. The Seljuks indeed throw the crusaders out again, but they don't think about giving Thrace to Byzantium again... now the empire only consists of the capital and Thessaloniki.
1304: Kingdom of Lesser Armenia becomes a tributary of the Rum-Seljuks (without war).
1306: Order of the Johannites buys Rhodos from Genoa.
1314: Thessaloniki conquered by Seljuks.
Since 1318: The new Choresm Shah Arslan I of the Karluk dynasty consolidates the empire and also adds Kashgar to it.
1319: Rum-Seljuks conquer the disputed area of Macedonia.
1323 / 1364: Rasulid Yemen loses against Mamluk Egypt. Hejaz now controlled by the latter.
1325: Zaidite dynasty restricts Rasulids to South Yemen.
1327: Constantinople falls after a long siege, effectively defeated by the hunger. Many Byzantines flee, parts to free Greek states or Trapezunt, others to Italy (mostly Florence, Genoa and Milan, avoiding Anjou Naples, the Papal States and Venice), again others even to Kiev. Genoa loses access to the Black Sea, suffering economic decline in the following years. The knowledge they bring to Western Europe helps spawning the "Rinascita" (it wasn't called that at this time) that already started in the last century.
1329: Another Seljuk victory against Bulgaria. Sofia falls.
1333: Seljuks conquer Thessalia. The remaining states in Greece start to panic, appeal for a new crusade, but with no success: Italy is divided, the HRE kings struggle with the ope or are too weak, France is first too poor and later under various kings, Hungary busy with Serbia and Kumans.
1338: After the necessary organizations, a small crusade organized mostly by small nations like Savoy happens, and Thessalia is reconquered. Bulgaria gets Sofia back.
1342: Lesser Armenia annexed by the Rum-Seljuks.
1347: Army of Georgia defeated, southern half of Trapezunt conquered.
1348: Rum-Seljuk ruler Kay Khusrau III dies, divides his empire between his sons Kay Khusrau IV of Rum (rules the European possessions and about a quarter of Asia Minor) and Kilij Arslan IV in Konya (former Ikonion).
|Earlier in time:||Muslim world
|Later in time:|