Alternate History

Muslim world 1250-1300 (Chaos)

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1252: Choresm tries to attack the rich kingdom of Ormus, but is surprisingly defeated by the strong fleet of the latter.

1253 (as OTL): Nikaia attacks Epirus / Thessalia. After hard fights they conquer Thessaloniki.

1254 (as OTL): After the death of Ioannis III Vatatzes, Michael VIII Palaiologos comes to power in Nikaia by a coup.

1255: Shah Jalal-ad-Din of Choresm dies. Some areas of his empire (Kara-Kitai, Afghanistan) try to break away. Kara-Kitai manage to stay independent, but Afghanistan is pacified in the following years and stays in the fold.

1256: Assassins not destroyed. They continue to play a more or less important role in the Middle East. Being Ismailites, the Sunni Muslims are their worst enemies.

1257 (as OTL): Shajar ad-Durr murdered after she has Aybak murdered. Qutuz becomes new sultan of Egypt.

1260: (Baibars I does not become ruler of Egypt.) Mamluks attack Crusader states, conquer Gaza, Askalon and Jaffa (earlier than OTL).

1261: Nikaia attacks Morea, hurts the allied states of Sicily and Epirus (similar as IOTL), but can't establish itself permanently in Mistra, which falls back to the crusaders in the same decade.

1262: Ayyubid sidelines still reigning in Syria who fear the raising power of the Mamluks and Rum-Seljuks appeal to the Choresm Shah (and power behind the Caliph, we remember) for protection. Thus, Choresm's sphere of influence now borders the Mediterranean.

1263: France under Louis IX plans a crusade as retail for the lost cities in Palestine, but Charles of Anjou is busy in Italy.

1265: Rum-Seljuks attack Nikaia, threaten the capital. This time they're content to get some areas (i.e. they don't want the whole empire). Genoa gets the Aegean islands of Lesbos, Chios and Samos, which Nikaia can't defend alone.

1268: The little crusader states of Antiochia and Tripolis (in Lebanon, not in Libya) conquered by Syrian and Choresmian troops.

1270: Seventh Crusade. France attacks Tunisia, without success.

1272: Charles of Anjou conquers the area of Albania.

1273: Baldwin II dies. His son Philip of Courtenay becomes last Latin Emperor.

1276: Finally, Constantinople's conquered by Nikaia (some defenders changed sides, after receiving a big bribe). The Latin Emperor flees to Athens. He becomes dependent of the mighty dukes of Athens and Achaia. Nikaia's energy and power isn't sufficient for further attacks on Epiros and other Crusader states. Emperor Michael has to start talks with the west about a reunification of the churches.

1277: Charles of Anjou conquers Akko, makes himself new king of Jerusalem. This comes in a very unfortunate moment for the crusaders...

1278: Achaia acquired by Charles of Anjou.

1279: Michael VIII Palaiologos dies.

1281: Last Crusader states in Palestine conquered by the Muslims. Teutonic Order moves headquarters from Akko to Venice.

1283: Philip of Courtenay dies.

1284: Rum-Seljuks attack East Roman Empire and conquer Brussa, Nicomedia and Nikaia. (IOTL the Ottomans took eleven years for that, but they were one of many little princedoms in Anatolia then. The Rum-Seljuks, OTOH, already own most of Anatolia...)

1285: Charles of Anjou dies.

1286: King Ottokar I has decided to go on a crusade against the Muslims, after the pope promised him to crown him Holy Roman Emperor. But while he always fought valiantly against the pagans in Prussia and Lithuania, which gave him the epiphet of "the Iron king", he's not so lucky now. Having reached Constantinople with his army, he dies. The crusade is cancelled, and the chance to rekindle actual interest in it is lost.

1287: Catholic and Greek Orthodox church officially reunited, as a last resort. Actually, many Byzantines don't like this idea at all - as they say, they prefer the Sultan's turban to the cardinal's hat.

1290: Aragon and Egypt make an alliance - the first important alliance between a Christian and a Muslim state.

1292: West of Lesser Armenia conquered by the Rum-Seljuks.

Chaos TL in blocks
Earlier in time:

Muslim world 1200-1250

Muslim world


Later in time:

Muslim world 1300-1350

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