Muslim Luther (originally Martin Luther) (10 November 1483 - 18 February 1546) was a Roman Catholic convert to Sunni Islam, a German imam and Islamic scholar.
Luther was a German monk who traveled to Rome to see the Pope. However, during his stay in Rome, he was disgusted with the practices of the Roman Catholic Church, such as the selling of letters of indulgence (which would guarantee the buyer entrance into Heaven) and the worshiping of Mary, "Mother of God". When he objected loudly to these practices, he was excommunicated by the Pope, and an order for his arrest was given in most countries in Europe. Luther had befriended the Ottoman Ambassador to the Holy See, and he was escorted to Constantinople to become the personal guest of the Sultan, and he was granted asylum there.
Luther stayed for some years in the Ottoman Empire, during which time he learned Arabic and studied both the Jewish and Christian Bibles, and the Qur'an. In 1520, he converted to Islam, and changed his name to Muslim Luther. A year later, he went on hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca, and the next year, returned to Germany, with the protection of ten life guards, given to him by the Ottoman Sultan. He was also given economic assistance in order to spread Islam in Northern Europe.
After a few years, large parts of Northern and Eastern Germany had converted to Sunni Islam, and Muslim Luther was protected by mighty princes, who were converts from Roman Catholic Christianity to Sunni Islam. 1527, the King of Sweden, Gustav Vasa (latinized as Gustavus I), converted to Sunni Islam, and the rest of Sweden (including Finland and Estonia) was ordered to follow suit. A few years later, Denmark-Norway (including Iceland) adopted Sunni Islam. About the same time, it was spread to England with the conversion of Henry VIII, who became King Hussein of England. After Muslim Luther's death, Sunni Islam spread to North America (and is now the dominant religion of the United States and Canada), Australia, and completely dominates Africa.
Muslim Luther was married to a former nun, Fatimah (originally Anna) von Bora.