Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi was the "brother leader" of Libya from 1969 once overthrowing the monarchy of the country until his death at the hands of a heart attack in 2011. He was the only leader with this title.

Critics long described Gaddafi as having been Libya's autocrat, despite the Libyan state's denial of his holding any power. In the 1980s, he acquired chemical weapons, leading to some calling Libya under Gaddafi a pariah state and countries around the world imposing sanctions. Six days after the capture of former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein in 2003 by the United States, Gaddafi renounced Tripoli's weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs and welcomed international inspections to verify that he would follow through on the commitment, which were found to be quite clean.

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