|Movement for Independence - Akzunne Forces|
Movimiento por la Independencia - Fuerzas Akzunne
|Secretary-General||Alberto Sissoko Kagutiri|
|Founder||Francisco "Lolo" N'Tsunda|
|Founded||11 September 1989|
|Dissolved||5 March 1993 (Independence and Military victory in May 1992)|
|Headquarters||City Capital of Campos ,Municipality of Campos, Akzunne|
|Youth wing||Soldados Jóvenes en Lucha|
|Ideology||Independence (or Separatism), Akzunne nationalism, Left-wing nationalism, Guided democracy|
|Political position||left to Center (Pro-Military Junta)|
|Official colours||Crimson and DodgerBlue|
Movement for Independence - Akzunne Forces (in Spanish: Movimiento por la Independencia - Fuerzas Akzunne) was the main political party and armed movement that fought for independence of Akzunne from Spain.
Early years and war of Independence (1990-1992)
The movement, then known as 11st of September Movement (or 11-9-M) (in spanish: Movimiento del 11 de Setiembre (or M-11-9)), was founded in 1989 as a nationalist group opposed to the Spanish colonial government. Convinced by recent events that peaceful agitation would not bring independence, the 11-9-M contemplated the possibility of armed struggle from the start, despite not launch its first attack until May 1990. In final of 1990, the 11-9-M became the Movement for Independence - Akzunne Forces. During the war of Independence, the Movement for Independence - Akzunne Forces received support from China, the Scandinavian countries and some non-governmental organizations in the West. His initial military operations North of the country, by the late 1990s had established "liberated zones" in North Akzunne where, instead of Spain, constituted civil authority. His practical experience in the liberated zones of the Movement for Independence - Akzunne Forces take increasingly toward leftist politics. The Movement for Independence - Akzunne Forces began to consider economic exploitation by Western capital as the main enemy of the common people, of Akunne, not the Spanish, as such and not white. Thus, despite an African nationalist party, adopted a non-racial stance, and actually included a number of whites and mulattos among its members. In 1992, after two years of intense war, Spain and Movement for Independence - Akzunne Forces negotiated the independence of Akzunne, which came into effect in June of the same year.
Later, in July 1992, the Movement for Independence - Akzunne Forces was recognized as the sole legitimate representative of the people Akzunne.
Civil War (1992-1994) and the end of Movement
In late 1992, the Movement for Independence - Akzunne Forces suffered with its division in factions, "shirtless people" (sometimes called "populists") and the "leftists" (sometimes called "anti-revisionists"). These two factions faced off for the leadership of the Movement for Independence - Akzunne Forces, which culminated in a civil war. After a few months of fighting, the victory seemed to be favorable to the "shirtless people", but these were pushed by the "leftists" to the bush. "shirtless people" garnering the support of rural workers, prolonged the clashes until Akzunne suffered of hunger due to the few rural workers to produce food. Despite this incident, "Shirtless people" maintained their struggle, having controlled the capital, demanding economic and social reforms always non-existent, which were aimed at the defense of the poor classes. Meanwhile, the "leftist" practically controlled the cities and urban centers. Then they did not suffer of hunger because they could import their supplies. Applied some social reforms, but nevertheless "Shirtless people" asked for more. The "leftist" pressured "shirtless people" with great sneak attacks, causing them numerous casualties. The "shirtless people" still try to spending their last forces when launching an offensive that aims to sabotage bridges and roads. But failed. Thousands"shirtless people" defected and fled abroad. After this, "shirtless people" surrendered unconditionally to the "leftists". In 1993, the two sides quickly agreed a ceasefire, and a plan was prepared to demobilize and become two political parties. The "leftist" formed the Akzunne People's Revolutionary Party, following the socialist model and not the communist model, while "shirtless people" formed the League of Progressive Workers, social-democratic character and labor model. The fragile status of peace would end, since new clashes were instigated by international opinion, they wanted a system of local democracy non-partisan, with a national parliamentary system, rises supervision of the World Assembly. The "shirtless people" have sent peace negotiators to the capital, where they were killed by "leftists". Consequently, hostilities erupted in the city, and soon spread to other parts of the country. Dozens of "leftist" supporters were subsequently killed around the country by forces of the "shirtless people" and civil war resumed. The war continued until the leader of the "leftists" was killed in December 1993. The General Peace Accords that ended the civil war that were not signed until April 1994. 18,000 people were estimated to have been killed fighting between these two factions.