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Moscow Pact (Acts of Union)

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Moscow Pact
Московский пакт
Timeline: Acts of Union
Motto: 
"Union of peace and socialism"
Moscow Pact.png
HeadquartersMoscow
Official languages Russian
Type Military alliance
Member states Multiple European and Asian States
Government Military Alliance
 -  Supreme Soviet Commander Georgy M. Zaitzev
 -  Secretary General
 -  Soviet Supreme Command
 -  Upper house Supreme Alliance Committee
 -  Lower house Military Committee
Formation
 -  Estabished 14 October 1955 


The Moscow Pact (formally, the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, sometimes, informally MOPac, aka in format to WDP and EC) was a collective defense treaty among the Soviet Union and many other Soviet satellite states and allies in Europe and Asia in existence during the Cold War. The  Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe as well as Asia. The Moscow Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into the European Coalition in 1955 per the Paris Pacts of 1954, but it is also considered to have been motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe and extending its influence into Asia.

With the Moscow Pact established as a balancing act to the newly forced Anglo-French led European Coalition they consolidated their power over Eastern Europe in relatively short order with the only major conflict within its own border being the Prague Spring which saw attempts at liberalization in the country put down quickly by nearly 250,000 troops of the pact which re-instituted a solid c\Communist government. The Pact also engaged in multiple border skirmishes with the European Coalition - two of which almost escalated into all out war in 1964 and 1977 respectively and saw Bulgarian and Soviet leadership allow for a relatively prepared and powerful response time.

The Moscow Pact de facto dissolved in August of 1991 following the failure to respond to the 1989 revolutions, and subsequent government reformations. In 1991 the final meeting was convened in Warsaw, Poland ending the organization and replacing it with the Eastern European Union a direct successor to the organization which while coming off to a slow and painful start has become a leading power bloc in the modern world.


History

Beginnings

Before the creation of the Moscow Pact, Czechoslovak leadership, fearful of a rearmed Germany, sought to create a security pact with East Germany and Poland. These states protested strongly against the re-militarization of West Germany. The Pact was primarily put in place as a consequence of the rearming of West Germany inside the European Coalition. Soviet leaders, as many European countries in both western and eastern side, feared Germany being once again a military power as a direct threat and German militarism remained a fresh memory among Soviets and Eastern Europeans. As the Soviet Union had already bilateral treaties with all of its eastern satellites and allies, the Pact has been long considered 'superfluous', and because of the rushed way in which it was conceived, Coalition officials labeled it as a 'cardboard castle'. Previously, in March 1954, the USSR, fearing the restoration of German Militarism in West Germany, requested admission to the Coalition only to be denied for various reasons (in reality not wanting a Communist superpower in the coalition). 

The initial request to join the coalition was essentially just a response to the absolute fear people had for the Germans and a potential rise again into a militaristic attitude. However, the Soviets under foreign minister Molotov, offered to reunite Germany as a result of their joining the coalition. This was however at the request that Germany be done with its occupation by all occupying powers (Commonwealth, France, and the USSR). This proposal was rejected as was the Soviet entrance into the coalition which led finally to the creation of the Moscow Pact in response to the development of the European Coalition.

The USSR with the creation of the Moscow Pact eventually expanded its umbrella outside of Europe to handle multiple developing Asian allies as well including Mongolia, the Peoples Republic of China, The Siamese Peoples Republic, the Peoples Republic of Myanmar and Afghanistan. The extensive development of the Moscow Pact as an alliance dealt heavily with the plethora of enemies the USSR potentially had to deal with. The USSR by 1959 was a direct rival of the European Coalition, The Greater East Asian Union, The Western Defense Pact, and multiple other smaller bloc which were all coincidentally enemies of each other as well due to the differing ideologies and objectives of all the factions.

The most prominent development in the Moscow Pacts military power and one of its final members was the movement of the Peoples Republic of China into the pact in 1968 following the discovery of a major plan by the PRC to invade much of Chinese Federation, under the Japanese umbrella was foiled in a pre-emptive strike on multiple positions which essentially forced the PRC to join the Moscow Pact and accept Soviet protection or face the brunt of a Third Sino-Japanese War on its own. The PRC angrily agreed and joined the Pact which did eventually bring about the end of the potential war.

Members

The 17 members of the Moscow Pact pledged mutual defense of any member which was attacked as well as non intervention in the sovereignty of other member states. Poland, East Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia were all under indirect Soviet control however but a vast majority of the member states were independent for the most part but did have major debts to either Bulgaria or the Soviet Union due to their status as the most powerful members until Chinese Ascendance in the 1970's.

The Founding Signatories of the Warsaw Pact consisted of the following governments under the broad umbrella that was Communism at the time:

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