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Monocentrism is the political belief that the only form of "natural" relationship between individuals is through direct personal agreement. This mean that no one can legitimately force someone to do an action for which he never personaly agreed on, nor to punish him for something he does not believe is wrong. This would mean that subjects such as taxes, conscription and indeed traditional government are, to them, illegitimate.
What was proposed was a system in which any type of interactions would be limited by contracts passed directly between individual. In case of apparent breaches, both party could choose to go to a third party (a professional conciliator) to resolve the problem.
Monocentrism in practice
Many have argued that the arecsies which today claim to follow monocentrism bear little in common with the theory. All are run by cartels which own monopolies over the major area of business and have adopted many of the trapping of modern states governments.
What passes for laws in arecsies is handled by private policemen called "Custodians" who enforced the "Privilege", which in monocentric parlance means the private laws under which a piece of land operate.
It arose in the then Albionese Republic as a reaction to war debt payments and an increasing bureaucracy. It originally proposed a system were government would be limited to certain matters (roads, lighthouses, army) and the rest would be left to what they refer to as "market forces".
Those monocentrists who wanted to achieve changes through traditional political channels (Gradualists) formed a political party (The Albionese Libertarian Party). The others (Radicals) wanted nothing short of the demise of organised government referred to the gradualists as traitors to the ideals.
Monocentrism evolved out of the writings of authors such as Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) & James Mill. While predating the monocentrist movement itself, a few earlier philosophers are often quoted as proto-moncentrist (although some would probably have been opposed to its practices). These include the Caledonian Adam Smith (1723-90), the french Voltaire (1694-1778) and the English John Locke (1632-1704).
Edmund Burke was a political writer who advocated the destruction of the republican system in Albion and he became one of the leaders of the monocentric forces during the Albionese civil war.