Mongolian/Chinese War
Timeline: 1960-1964
Location Eastern Asia
Result Mongolian Victory
  • Mongolia
  • Japan
  • People's Republic of China
The Mongolian/Chinese War was a conflict taking place after Mongolia's discovery of oil in the Gobi Desert in 1944. As Mongolia became stronger it eventually rebelled against its Communist leaders in late 1959. Later that year Mongolia's new government began to become friendly with NATO and the United States of America. In 1960 China invaded Mongolia in hopes of re-establishing a Communist government and securing the vast oil fields.

Mongolia and Japan (Green) vs China (Dark Red) supported by the USSR and puppets (Red)

(1944) Discovery of Oil

Late in 1944 a Soviet archaeology team uncovered large pockets of oil while hunting for fossils in the Gobi Desert. Soon the Mongolian government began major operations to extract and guard the oil deposits. Quickly Mongolia grew in population and power. By the end of World War II that next year, Mongolia was supplying the USSR with one-fifth of their oil supply. Before long Mongolia became powerful enough to be no longer completely dependent on the USSR. However, the USSR, not wanting to give up the vast oil supply, sent in the military and stronger puppets to Mongolia. For ten years Mongolia prospered and supplied the USSR. In 1956 Mongolia's population surpassed ten million. The population soon demanded more profit for the oil. Several protests and small uprisings took place from 1956 to 1959. Finally in early 1959 The USSR began to pull back its military control of the oil fields. However, this would not lead to less protests, only more.

(1959) Mongolian Revolution

In September 1959 the Mongolian people rose up to fight the Communist occupation. Achieving early defeats their spirits were boosted when the Mongolian Military took over the oil fields. The Mongolian Military then set up powerful defences around the fields and built factories and managed the oil supply. In October 1959 the USSR did several air raids and an attempted counter attack which both failed. By November 1959 The Mongolian Army put the USSR on the run. A decisive victory for the Mongolian resistance would be to capture Mongolia'a capital, Ulan Bator. The Mongolian Army besieged the USSR forces for a month before they achieved victory. By then the Communist government was thrown out and a Democratic government was instituted. However the USSR continued air strikes for several months before a treaty was signed between the two nations.

(1960) Chinese Invasion

China discovered a few small pockets of oil near the Mongolian border but not a sufficient amount to be self sustainable like Mongolia. For several months the Chinese government drew up invasion plans of Mongolia. In the meantime Mongolia's military became very powerful and they had a very successful general from the uprising in command. Quickly Japan became Mongolia's greatest ally. Soon South Korea and Taiwan became allies. NATO and the USA began to pay attention to Mongolia and began to support it with new military equipment. However on June 5, 1960 Chinese troops crossed into the Mongolian border. Despite losing the first few skirmishes, the Chinese military began to make advances. At the end of the year Chinese troops had achieved enough ground to begin preparations for taking the risky oil fields.

(1961-1962) Chinese Victories


Greatest extent of Chinese advance

Chinese troops invaded the oil fields suffering heavy losses but a swift victory. Without the oil fields Mongolia was vulnerable. China began to advance slowly but surely. By the end of 1961 Mongolia was in need of more oil. Trade with Japan began and Mongolia was supplied with more oil. This lead to small Mongolian victories until the full force of China's military arrived. This huge army began to destroy everything in their path in an act of total war. The army arrived at Ulan Bator and began a siege of the city. Within a month the city fell.

(1963) Mongolia Turns the Tide

China's victories only lasted so long. Soon Mongolian troops retook the capital and began to recapture land at a fast pace. China gathered its

Greatest extent of Japanese and Mongolian advance

troops in a perimeter around Ulan Bator in hopes of surrounding the Mongolian military and crushing them. However Japan entered the war on Mongolia's side and sent in enough air drops to get the Mongolian's to last out the Chinese. The Mongolians then charged out of the city's ruins and defeated the Chinese army and caused a crippling blow. China retreated to the oil fields in hopes of at least holding them. For the remainder of the year Mongolia and Japan pushed back the Chinese to the oil fields and began a siege.

(1964) Mongolian Victory


The new borders after the Treaty of New Delhi

In February 1964 the Mongolian and Japanese army pushed the Chinese out of the oil fields. The devastated Chinese army was pushed back into China. The Mongolian and Japanese armies did not halt and continued to advance into Chinese territory. Although China sent in its reserves they were poorly lead and were defeated. Before long Manchuria was captured. Seeing China's large defeat, The USSR threatened Japan and Mongolia with nuclear action and entry into the war if they did not come to an agreement. In October 1964 The Treaty of New Delhi was signed. Mongolia gained some territory from China and in exchange had to sign a trade agreement with the USSR and China. Japan was let off easy and didn't gain or loose anything of significance.