The Mongolian People's Republic (Mongolian: Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU) is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia FSR to the north and China to the south, east and west. The Mongolian PR has emerged in a few decades from an agrarian and traditional society to a booming agricultural-industrial country. This done mainly by the injection of financial and technical help from the Russian FSR and the Federation of Socialist Republics (FSR). Some quote this has one of the finest example of the solidarity of proletarian internationalism, but to others is another example of Russia's state expansionism.
Independence and early years
Until 1911 it was part of China in the region known has Outer Mongolia. When Xinhai Revolution had begun in China, and in December 1911 the Mongols deposed the Manchu amban (high Official) in Ikh Khuree (present Ulan Bator) and declared their independence under the leadership of the 8th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, who was appointed Bogd Khan of Mongolia, breaking away from the Manchu Empire. During the Russian Revolution, Mongolia was part of the battleground between the Red Army and the White Forces. In 1919-1921 China sent a expeditionary force to recover Mongolia, which was defeated by a combined force of the Red Army and the Mongolian People's Army. The Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed in 1921. Becoming a close ally, and dependent military and economically of the Russian FSR and later FSR. A Treaty of Mutual Assistance was signed in 1922, provided Russian assistance in organizing a regular army and air forces, conduct training and advice on setting up a Military Academy. It also allowed a detachment of the Red Army to remain in Mongolia.
After the failed intent to regain Outer Mongolia, the Republic of China (Beijing) agreed to recognize the independence of Mongolia PR. However the main disputes with the Russian FSR are the territorial claims over Tannu Uriankhai (present Tuva ASR) and the wishes of Mongolian leadership to annex Inner Mongolia (in China), Tuva, Buryatia and Altai (in Russian FSR).
Revolutionary transformation and war
One of the first steps of the new state was a land reform throughout the seizure of the land of the nobles and monasteries. Abolition aristocracy's feudal privileges and separation of State and Religious groups. The gradually between 1922-1926 and mandatory from 1926 it was built a state-guided economy supported by cooperatives. In 1928 all monasteries and Buddhist centers are disband and banned.
The establishment in Inner Mongolia of Mengjiang (1932) and the occupation of Japan of Manchuria and the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo (1934) created concerns on Japanese expansion and the security of the frontiers.
In 1938 Mongolia becomes a member of the International Community of Socialist States.
Organization of the Mongolian PR
The constitution approved in 1922, reformed in 1925 establishes the organization of the Mongolian PR.
- the supreme organ of power is the People's Great Khural. It is composed of 200 deputies directly elected by the people every 4 years. The People's Great Khural is the legislative body of Mongolian PR. It elects every 4 years the Little Khural and the Council of People's Commissars, the Supreme Court of Mongolian PR and the Procurator of the Republic.
- the executive power resides in the Little Khural of the People's Great Khural, that is the collective head of state. It is integrated by a Chairman and two vice chairmen and 4 other members. The Council of People's Commissars carries out all the executive and administrative functions of the Mongolian PR. The Little Khural and the Council of People's Commissars are responsible before the People's Great Khural.
- the judiciary is in charge of the Supreme Court and the Prosecutor General, both institutions elected by the People's Great Khural.
The right to vote in elections and national referenda is extended to those who are above the age of eighteen. During elections and referenda, a citizen can vote or not vote without any consequences from the government.
The only legal political party is the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP). The MPRP is founded in 1919 has the Mongolian People's Party. It a party Congress of 1925 changes to its present name. The MPRP is also a member of the Comintern.
According to the 1925 constitutional reform the MPRP is ... the directing and guiding force of society and the state, preparing the Mongolian people to the next stage of socialist development. Allowed mass organization, that can also present candidates to elections are the Mongolian Revolutionary Youth League, Mongolian Women's Federation, Congress of the Mongolian Trade Union, Union of Agricultural Associations, Mongolian Cultural League, Union of Mongolian Senior Citizens and Union of War Veterans.
The Mongolian PR is organized in aimags (provinces) and the cities of Ulaanbaatar, Darhan, and Erdenet into three provincial level autonomous cities (hots). The aimags are divided into sums (or soum). The bags (sometimes rendered as baghs) are a subdivision of some sums. The aimags, hots and sums assemblies (khurals) are elected by their respective citizens every 4 years. At all level, governors are named by the Little Khural.
Mongolia on the eve of its independence was mainly an agrarian economy with large animal husbandry sector. Economic development and planning has developed into an agricultural-industrial economy. Its foreign trade is mainly done with member states of the ICSS.
Socialist ownership has two forms: state ownership (of land and natural resources, economic facilities and infrastructure; and the property of all state organizations, enterprises, and institutions) and cooperative ownership (property of agricultural associations and other types of cooperatives). Private ownership is negligible in all sectors of the economy, except animal husbandry. It this last case there are gradual plans to convert the majority of them into cooperative ownership under negdel. The cooperatives are organized in Union of Agricultural Associations that acts has liaison before the authorities.
Economic and technical for Mongolian PR is done by means of the Advisory Commission for the Far East of the FSR, previously done by the Russian FSR. In its first period it created joint Russian-Mongolian companies (RusMonKom). With Russian help it was established the Mongolian National Bank (Monogolbank) and a national currency (tögrög).
The main railroad is Trans-Mongolian Railway, that connects with the Transiberian Railway, operated by the Mongoltrans. Air transport is done by Mongolian Airlines (MIAT), which provides services of crop dusting, forest and steppe fire patrol, and air ambulance.