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The Republic of Mongolia (Mongolian: Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Улс, Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Uls; Russian: Республика Монголия, Respublika Mongoliya), colloquially known as Mongolia (Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls; Монголия, Mongoliya), is a landlocked country that is located in Northeastern Asia. This nation is bordered by Russia to the north, Manchuria to the east, China and Tibet to the south, and Uyghurstan to the west.
The territory of modern day Mongolia was once the homeland of numerous nomadic peoples; including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran Khaganate, and the Turkic Khaganate. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan, the region became the core of the expansive Mongol Empire in 1206. His grandson, Kublai Khan, later founded the Yuan Dynasty in neighboring China.
The region returned to a nomadic lifestyle following the empires collapse, with factional strife continuing until the adoption of Tibetan Buddhism during the 17th Century. Mongolia would later be absorbed into the Qing Dynasty during the 18th Century, only to achieve independence following the fall of the dynasty in 1911. In 1924, Mongolia became a Communist State under the backing of the Soviet Union. Khorloogiin Choibalsan, the leader of Mongolia during the invasion, chose to remain in Ulaanbaatar to fight along with his army. His remains were later found by Chinese troops.
A government in exile was established in Tannu-Tuva. The new leadership (under Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal) began talks to be admitted into the Soviet Union following the war (a feat which was opposed by Choibalsan). The Mongol Soviet Socialist Republic was officially established in 1944, with Tuva being incorporated as an autonomous republic within Mongolia. As part of the peace agreement following World War II, Soviet-controlled Inner Mongolia was annexed and incorporated into the MSSR.
During the Cold War, the resources of the Mongol SSR would be utilized by the Soviet Union. Industry and mining became the main focuses of the economy. It was also during this time that the ethnic Han Chinese, many of whom had been living in Chinese-controlled Inner Mongolia, were forcibly expelled from much of the USSR. This population vacuum was later filled by Russian settlers. During the waning years of the Soviet Union, secession movement began to emerge within Mongolia. Shortly following the failed August Coup attempt in 1991, Mongolia formally declared their independence from the USSR. This declaration is formally recognized by Moscow later in the year, shortly before the USSR is dissolved. Since gaining independence, Mongolia has remained a close ally of the Russian Federation and much of the former republics of the USSR. The transition to a market economy during the 1990s would be a tumultuous time.