The Mongolian People's Republic (Mongolian: Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls), usually known as Mongolia, is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It bordered with the Soviet Union to the north, with China to the south, with Manchuria to the east and with Uyghurstan to the west. It is a constitutionally socialist state and ruled by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the population.
Bogd Khaanate (1911-1924)
Following the series of revolutions in China in 1911, Outer Mongolia declared its independence from Qing Dynasty on December 29, 1911 with eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu was elected as Bogd Khan, the head of state of independent Mongolia. The attempts to include Inner Mongolia into the newly-independent Mongolia failed for various reasons, including the military weakness of the Inner Mongols to achieve their independence and the lack of support from a part Inner Mongolian nobles and the higher clergy.
Despite Imperial Russian recognition on Outer Mongolian independence on November 3, 1912, this status later reverted again in the Kyakhta agreement of 1915 between China, Russia and Outer Mongolia that agreed on all Mongolia's status as autonomy within China.