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Mongolia (Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол улс, Mongolian Script: ) officially the Khanate Republic of Mongolia is a country located in East Asia north of China and Manchuria and south of Russia. Mongolia nearly shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west, but does not only sharing a close distance. Mongolia's history and culture is significantly based on Genghis Khan and his army. Mongolia is an independent country but is a protectorate of the Soviet Union.
The area came to be known as Mongolia were settled by rivaling nomadic tribes. Mongols were simply ethnic groups who spoke Altaic-Mongolic languages. It isn't until a soldier named Genghis Khan united the Mongols. The Mongols conquered one of the biggest empires in all of history. Kublai Khan conquered China and became the first non-Chinese emperor. Kublai Khan formed the Yuan Dynasty. After the Yuan Dynasty collapsed, Mongol rulers were expelled from China but they still continued to rule Mongolia. But Chinese forces took over Mongolia reversing the entire history between the Chinese Empire and Mongol Empire. Mongolia was also known as Outer Mongolia. Damdin Sükhbaatar, a Mongolian nationalist started an independence movement in the 1920s. The Russians helped the Mongols drive the Chinese forces out of Mongolia. In 1949, China officially recognized Outer Mongolia's independence.
Annexation of Inner Mongolia and Manchuria
There is where the Andromeda Timeline meets a PoD with our Milky Way Timeline in Mongolia. A problem still persisted for the Mongols who did not live in Mongolia. Inner Mongolia still remained part of China. The Chinese army (and yeah, this still within the Milky Way Timeline) killed hundreds of innocent Mongols living in Inner Mongolia and destroyed many Tibetan Buddhist temples. Outer Mongolia's population was not enough to "help" Inner Mongolia gain independence through military force. Mongolia had a population of 3,000,000 people and with a tiny population like that, a war with China would definitely wipe out the entire Mongol population. Mongolia was a protectorate of the Soviet Union and a member of the Warsaw Pact. At first premier Leonid Brezhnev was reluctant to. Brezhnev said, "Inner Mongolia is under China's control. So it is in their hands, not ours." Due to the lack of help from the Chinese government, the Mongolian government ended paying for the living conditions of the Mongols in China. Mao Zedong of China sent more troops to Inner Mongolia. Many Mongols being fleeing to Mongolia. Many died along the way due to the harsh Siberian weather. Inner Mongolia's governer asked Mongolia for help who asked the Soviet Union for help. The Chinese soldiers went to as far as China and Mongolia's borders.
Soviet/Korean Invasion of Inner Mongolia and ManchuriaThe Mongolian government plead with the Soviet government to help annex Inner Mongolia. Mongolia was a protectorate of the Soviet Union. Relations between the Soviet Union and China were already dire, both were military superpowers in the east. Premier Leonid Brezhnev attempted to buy Inner Mongolia from China in exchange for nuclear products. Mao Zedong rejected the offer. The Mongolian government started a worldwide campaign to help the helpless Inner Mongolia gain independence from China. The issue was mentioned in the United States during a NATO summit in Chicago, Illinois. For the first time in history ever since World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States would cooperate in an operation to free Inner Mongolia from China. Leonid Brezhnev and Richard Nixon met in Ulaanbaatar along with Mongolian president Navaandorjiin Jadambaa. Mao Zedong had just been notified that the United States and Soviet Union are sending troops over to Inner Mongolia. Chinese troops guarding Inner Mongolia in the north started to threaten innocent Mongols once more in favor of the Han Chinese. A Russian scout named Yuri Glebov reported to Brezhnev that Chinese soldiers were attacking the Mongols. This forced Brezhnev to send Russian troops to southern Mongolia and northern Inner Mongolia and started fighting the Chinese troops. About 500 Mongolian troops were also in the process of the Soviet/NATO invasion of Inner Mongolia. U.S war planes destroyed Chinese air force bases in Inner Mongolia while Russian ground forces battled China's ground forces. Korean soldiers also became involved. As a request from NATO, the South Korean government agreed to sent Korean forces over to Manchuria. Even North Korea sent forces over to Manchuria in a time historically known as the "..the first time ever since World War II, where the east and west cooperated." The Russian soldiers armed the Mongol nomads, who were not familiar with using guns such as modern day AK-47s and RPGs. The Russian arms supplier Alexander Pozharov said, "You'll have nothing to lose but your chains." Chinese tanks were taken by surprise from RPG fire by Soviet, American, Mongolian soldiers and Mongol nomad revolutionaries.
Inner Mongolia and Manchuria Become Mongolia's
Despite the fact that the Chinese forces outnumbered the Russian and American forces, they could not push the combined force of Soviet and American soldiers. In Manchuria, the Korean soldiers began opening fire against Chinese bases. The Chinese and Soviet governments also began aiming their nuclear weapons at each other's capitals. Zedong had the most fear out of this knowing that the United States, North Korea and South Korea could also point their nukes at China. So the Chinese government submitted and agreed to give Inner Mongolia its independence against China. Chinese forces exited out of Inner Mongolia as Soviet and American troops began to pour onto Inner Mongolia's southern borders. American troops left and Inner Mongolia became a trust territory and protectorate of the Soviet Union and soon part of Mongolia. The following day, Manchuria became a protectorate of South Korea and was too handed over to Mongolia.
Modern Day Politics and Administration
Today Mongolia is a parliamentary republic known as a "khanate". A president and prime minister does administer Mongolia's government. Khans are referred to for Mongol rulers. Since Mongolia is no longer an empire but a parliamentary republic, Mongolian presidents are referred to as khans. Mongolia's current president/khan is Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj and the prime minister is Sükhbaataryn Batbold, Mongolia's former khan before Elbegdorj. There are 23 aimags (provinces) in Mongolia. Inner Mongolia and Manchuria being the two largest provinces in Mongolia.
Languages and Religion
Mongolian is the national language of Mongolia. Manchu and Russian are official languages in Mongolia. Mongolian belongs to the Mongolic subfamily of the Altaic languages. Manchu is the language spoken in Manchuria. Manchu belongs to the Tungusic family of languages. When Manchuria became part of China, the Manchu language nearly disappeared. The governor of Manchuria declared it mandatory that Manchu is spoken as the state language alongside Mongolian and possibly Russian and Chinese. Due to Mongolia's existence as a protectorate of the Soviet Union, Russian is also an official language in Mongolia. Mongolian is written in two scripts, the Cyrillic and Mongolian scripts. When Outer Mongolia became independent of China, the Soviets enforced the Cyrillic alphabet in replacement of the Mongolian traditional script. But this script remained alive in Inner Mongolia, which had a population twice the number of Mongols as Outer Mongolia. Now, the traditional Mongolian alphabet is seeing majority use in Mongolia mostly in southern Mongolia while northern Mongolians use the Cyrillic script. The Manchu language is also written using the Mongolian script. After Inner Mongolia and Manchuria's annexation into Mongolia, the Mongolian government declared it mandatory for the traditional Mongolian script to be Mongolia's national script and to be taught to Cyrillic-users. Although Cyrillic was moved from the official script, to an official script. The Mongolian government still recognizes the importance of Cyrillic because Russian is also an official language. In southern Inner Mongolia there are still some Chinese living in the country, many of the Chinese had emigrated out back into their Chinese homeland. Chinese is still a minority in Mongolia. In Ulaanbaatar, there is a Chinatown. Most Mongols follow Tibetan Buddhism. Mongolia does have a Muslim population in the west near Kazakhstan. These Mongolians are not ethnic Mongols, they are Kazakh nomads. Mongols still retain their culture that dates back to Genghis Khan and his army.
Eighty percent of Mongolia's population are ethnic Mongols. About 45% of those Mongols living in urban cities. The other 8% are ethnic Han Chinese who have chosen to stay living in Inner Mongolia. The other 10% are Kazakh nomads who live in western Mongolian near Kazakhstan, China and Russia. The two percent are ethnic Manchus, who are native to Manchuria. These people are considered an "endangered" ethnicity, that the Mongolian government posed a limit on how much Manchus and Mongols could serve in Mongolia's national armed forces.