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Alternate History

Mongol invasion of Persia (Fidem Pacis)

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Concurrent:

Mongol conquests

Mongol invasion of Persia
Beginning:

1216

End:

1221

Place:

Persia, Central Asia

Outcome:
Combatants

Ghurid Dynasty
Khwarezmian Turks
Armenia

Mongol Empire

Commanders

Kurush V
Bahram Karenvand
Arslan Khan
Vardan Bagratuni
Tigran Suruni

Genghis Khan
Jochi
Chagatai
Ogedai
Tolui
Subutai
Jebe
Jelme

Strength

Ghurids: 220,000
Khwarezmids: 150,000
Armenia: 100,000

100,000-150,000

Casualties and Losses
The first Mongol invasion of Persia began at the beginning of the 13th century, when Genghis Khan of the fledgling Mongol Empire had a minor disagreement with the khan of the Khwarezmians.

Background

After the fall of the Sassanid Dynasty in AD 949, Persia dissolved into a mass of semi-independent statelets endlessly warring with each other, but eventually three main factions emerged. Media and Assyria were absorbed into Armenia, which had long been very culturally similar to northern Persia; and many of the northern and eastern provinces were overrun by various Turkic tribes, among whom the Khwarezmians eventually became dominant. In the centre, the Shansabani Dynasty, a native Persian dynasty of Pashtun origin, took control of Iran itself.

At around the same time the various Mongol tribes were being united one by one under the leadership of Temujin, known as Genghis Khan. From 1211-1214 the Mongols invaded northern China and brought the Jin Dynasty to the brink of destruction, though ultimately they were happy to withdraw after receiving an imperial fortune in tribute.

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