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|Timeline : Superpowers|
|Population Density||94.43 inhb/km²|
|Official Language||Mongolian and Mandarin Chinese (de jure)|
|Emperor||Zshang Khan (Khagan)|
|GDP per ca.||
$50,000 per person
|Development||#4 in the world|
Greater Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Ulus) or Mongol World Empire (Mg: Ikh Mongol Uls) is a sovereign state governed by the Mongol Khan. Largest contiguous state in the world, this modern dynasty of China and Mongolia encompasses the entirety of Asia, with the exceptions of Arabia, India, Korea and Japan.
China has such vast territory and uncountable residents that alliances are unnecessary. Even Rome can pose only a minor threat to its security. It has taken periods of great military tension - as those times preceding the Great War - for it to fight alongside another great power.
Recent conflicts between the Alliance and the Confederacy have troubled Mongolian ambitions. Despite losing multiple wars, however, Mongolia has more territory than ever. Assembled at once, its armies outmatch all others in firepower, size or resolve but are behind in technology.
Although the science and engineering of China lags behind Allied countries, it has the second largest economy and can easily outproduce any state other than Rome. This production capacity coupled with a huge population makes China an intimidating international force.
Naming schemes for the Mongol World Empire are complicated compared with straightforward states like Rome or Japan.
Rome refers to the country as Sinica (China) as the region has been known for millennia, passing to the Mongols after they conquered the land. Some more technical Romans use the name Mongolia as a politically accurate descriptor.
Mongols themselves call their empire the Ikh Mongol Uls (Mongol World Empire) reflecting the government ambition for global dominion. When rule over China needed to be emphasized, the title of Dai Ön Ulus (Great Yuan) was adopted to signify a dynastic succession.
Government & Politics
Sinica is under the total executive and legislative control of a supreme leader, the Khagan. This is signified by marking the entire empire as his khaganate, subdivided into lesser khanates and other political regions. Since 1270, the Chinese have granted the Khagan their Mandate of Heaven, conferring legitimacy to his rule over China. This is, however, at the cost of the Khagan's security. The bureaucracy now has the legal and religious right - nay the duty - to depose him for social abuse. A deposed Khagan, following the ancient traditions, is executed for judgement after death. Of course, previous Khagan's have been saavy enough to ensure that a Mongol, usually someone from the deposed leader's family, succeeds upon execution of the sovereign. This is in contrast to the practices of the pre-Mongolian Chinese who would often see a new dynasty following the violent deposition of an emperor.
Despite the absolute power of the Khagan, the lesser tribal chieftains sought to establish their own lineage under the new civilized regime. They formed, with the permission of Ghenghis Khan, the Gathering, a permanent Khurultai. This became the Khagan's primary bureaucratic instrument and his means of passing legitimacy of rule onto his descendants. Over time, governors of the other territories were added to the Gathering. Today this assembly consists of Cambodian High Priests, Mongol Khans and the Chinese Shi. The latter are meritocrats selected in a secretive process which involves intellectual and physical examinations to satisfy particular Confucian principles. Although each member of the assembly has an equal share of its power, the Shi dominate by sheer numbers.
Each of the 10 Khans rules over vast, sparsely populated, resource-rich lands in the west. These territories are part of their borders with other nations so the Khan's are as much military leaders as political ones. In peace time, virtually all of the nation's military ground forces are concentrated in the Khanates (Mongol provinces). The Golden Khanate (Home Khanate) is controlled by the Khagan through his representative the Vizier, a title the Mongols have adopted from the Arab world.
The 10 High Priests rule over a relatively small area with a high population, concentrated in South East Asia where the Khmer once ruled. They are Hindu religious leaders of the area, nine of which are subordinate to the Cardinal of Angkor Wat, a puppet of the Khagan. The High Priests are forbidden from having any military control whatsoever and so their role is largely one of keeping the Khmer Districts, or Cambodian provinces, in line.
The 60 Shi administer the primary population centers of the Mongol World Empire, situated in former Song. While not strictly token leaders like the High Priests, they still lack the military control of Khans. Nevertheless, they have the most influence in the Khurultai and are positioned to control the Mongol naval forces. The Shi are popularly associated with the state's bureaucracy and government activities.
As the largest armed forces on the planet, the Subutai National Army boasts 12.6 million regular soldiers. This almost excessive number of troops is maintained by mandatory military service - 2 years for every man born within the borders of the Khaganate. No force in history compares in size to the modern SNA. Even the 14th Golden Horde from the Second World War fell short of its forces. However, relative technological backwardness compared to Rome, Japan and the Maya weaves uncertainty into the Mongol army's relative strength. Historically, the World Empire has supplemented its army by conscripting citizens into a Golden Horde. When the security of Sinica is threatened, a Khagan can lawfully force his people into service, magnifying the size of his forces several times. A modern horde could have anywhere from 20 million to 50 million soldiers. Human civilization has never witnessed a comparable military force.
Although Mongolia has the second highest GDP value in the world, this is very unevenly spread amongst the population. In fact, per capita GDP stands only around 1000 Dn and bringing the Mongols close to even so-called "Lower Countries". The major issue here though is that a proportionally small portion of the country's GDP is actually in the hands of the common people. Perhaps 40% is in the hands of the government and its upper members, the other 60% originates from the households of the general populace. By those numbers, the average disposable income of someone living in the World Empire is only around half of their GDP PPP, or just 500 Dn.
The Common people of Mongolia's population can be divided into three groups. There are the farmers, who work in the fields and provide sustenance for the rest of the population. Then there are the workers, who operate machinery in the streets, in factories and in people's homes to provide most of the country's production. The last group are the soldiers, who fight in the army and defend the country from its many enemies. In the Upper Classes, there are the scientists, a rare but very important position in Mongolian society. The administrators, who work for the government and fill their own pockets from the nation's economic progress, and finally the clergy, mostly Buddhist and Hindu, who receive numerous benefits in society and serve to keep the population happy, and relieve their pain through their teachings.
Nearly 60% of all working age residents of the World Empire are classified as workers, and this can range anywhere from a bank clerk, to a janitor and even an office worker. Most workers receive decent enough pay, better than the farmers, but also work extremely long hours, sometimes up to 12 hours a day. Farmers make up around 24% of the population, which is a huge contrast to most other developed countries. Someone can be classified as a farmer as long as their job involves the collection of some kind of commodity, and so people like miners and oil rig workers are actually classified under the Mongolian word which roughly translates as farmer, or "he who collects". In this system, only about 0.8% of people work in the top section, the government.
Science & Technology
Surprisingly, the Mongols have done a good job in advancing their technology, mostly through theft and shrewd alliances. While this does allow them to keep up with general developments like rifling, tanks, antibiotics, and the like, the technology they gain is improved very little once it is obtained as the number of intellectuals in Mongolia is low. Nevertheless, as testament to their spy network the Mongols are the fifth, even arguably the fourth most advanced nation on Earth. Additionally, they have a knack for making one kind of modification to things, just one kind. They can make them a lot larger. Without even having the technology of the tank, Mongol scientists and engineers in the early 1900's were able to build huge, nearly indestructible vehicles known as "Behemoths" that could basically tear through enemy lines with their size alone.
Other technology like the jet engine and the computer have in the past thirty years fallen into Mongolian hands, and the government especially has found new and insidious uses for the devices. This greatly worries the Romans in particular as their only advantage against the Mongols for the time being is their technology. Once that gap has been bridged, the Mongols will be the most powerful force on the planet.
In spite of shocking per capita poverty for an industrialized country, Mongolia does provide impressive access to infrastructural conveniences on a national scale. One example of this is the national railway system - longest connected transport system in the world, spanning 760,000 km. The longest single network of lines is the great Trans-Sabirian railway at 13,820 km, stretching from the border with Rome to the border with Majapahijia.
Other than the railway system, the Mongolian people have access to a 69,500 km national highway network and an additional 5.3 million km of paved and unpaved roads. Unfortunately, since only a certain portion of the population can afford a car (less than 50%) demographic mobility is still rather low, with a static agrarian society and a highly mobile urban society around China and the colony of Alyeska.
Cities in the hundreds of thousands of people mostly possess their own light rail network, available to the public for a small and affordable fee. Major settlements like Xi'an and Temujin even have their own complex underground electric railways. The extensiveness of urban transport caused the development of large suburban communities on the outskirts of metropoles.
Power generation in Sinica favors the bulk-approach over efficiency, buttressed by the empire's massive stocks of natural resources like uranium, coal and natural gas. Almost anywhere, enormous fossil fuel burning plants can be found - inside and outside cities - supplying over half of the country's energy. Mongols lead the world in per capita and gross emissions of carbon dioxide and methane.
Another quarter of the empire's power comes from hydroelectric dams positioned on major rivers like the Yangtze and Huange He. A final 17% is generated by nuclear fission reactors. The trend in Mongolia is that the closer one gets to China the larger and clear the sources of electricity while the further away one gets the more one finds a predominance of coal and gas powered stations.
Ground vehicles run on surprisingly green sources of energy - underlied by a nationally dirty strategy of power production which renders it less than beneficial. Within China, 74% of vehicles only use hydrogen fuel cells as the infrastructure has developed in that region. Elsewhere, automobiles are powered completely by their batteries and recharge at roadside stations. Since this powers them off the grid, it is as if they run on fossil fuels anyway, albeit keeping emissions outside city streets. The advantage found by the Mongols in hydrogen fuel cells is that power plants can be built farther from cities, near hydrogen production centers, and the fuel can enter along pipelines. This keeps potential military targets outside major city limits.