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The Egyptian Empire is a constitutional monarchy, ruled by a Pharaoh. The full title of the Pharaoh is "Pharaoh of Egypt; King of Jerusalem, Zululand, Buganda, Swaziland and the Maasai; Emperor of Australia, the Malagasy, and the Maori". The current Pharaoh, Seti XIV, ascended to the throne after the assassination of his father, Horemheb XII.
The Pharaoh and his family have direct roles in the Empire. That said, the powers of the Imperial Family are curbed by the Council of Commoners, who have the power to limit and overrule the Pharaoh's decisions.
The title is ancient, dating back to Egypt's Old Kingdom, first established when Narmer united the kingdoms of Egypt. The title has been kept since, and after the Egyptian retaking of Jerusalem from the Caliphate, the Pharaoh was formally crowned "King of Jerusalem" in the Temple.
Titles and Styles
The Pharaoh of Egypt is noted for having the largest amount of titles out of any monarch, holding a total of eight titles, not including the title "Pharaoh". Though they referred to as "Pharaoh", he also bears the names "King" and "Emperor". While the title "Pharaoh" has been used since time in memoriam, the other two titles were not added to his name until the 11th century.
After the re-conquest of the Palestinian region from the Caliphate, the Pharaoh issued a precedence, when instead of installing a vassal king, he proclaimed himself King of Israel, and was crowned in the Temple of Jerusalem. The Jewish people, having just been liberated from a more oppressive rule under the Arabs, barely protested this. After this event, Pharaohs altered their policies to a conquered people. When a kingdom was conquered, the Pharaoh took the title of "King" for himself, instead of allowing the current monarch to rule through him, or installing a new one. This was most notable when Pharaoh Sesostris VIII waged war with the Zulu. After defeating the Zulu army, the reigning King, Siphamandla, was brought before Sesostris' throne, where (according to Egyptian royal records) Sesostris approached Siphamandla, and directly took the Zulu royal spear from his hands, and broke it in half, before taking the crown, and putting it on his own head.
In addition to the title of king, the Pharaoh was also given the title "Emperor" to refer to his dominion over the overseas territories, such as Madagascar, Australia, and the Maori islands. Popular belief holds that the idea came in the year 1242 when Pharaoh Psamtik XIX commented to one of his aides that their's seem to be the only empire with no Emperor, though there is no record of this. The first recorded use of the word "Emperor", is in the year 1373, when the treaty of non-aggression with the Ghanese included the term "Emperor" being used in the Pharaoh's style.
People address the Pharaoh and his Queen as "your Majesty", or "your Excellency". Princes and princesses of the Empire are addressed as "your Highness".
The Pharaoh has the power to appoint the governors of the Imperial provinces. The governors answer to the Pharaoh, not to the Council of Commoners.
In additional to being the head of domestic affairs, the Pharaoh is also the head of foreign affairs. He has the power to dictate and establish diplomatic relations wihtin the Empire, though within the confines of the Council of Commoners parameters.
The Pharaoh is the Commander in Chief of the Egyptian Imperial Army. He has the power to delegate military spending, and military strategies, though the power to declare war is reserved to the Council.
The first Pharaoh in recorded Egyptian history is Narmer, who united the multiple kingdoms. The title had been associate with Egypt since then, having been held by all monarchs of Egypt, with the exception of the period of Assyrian rule over Egypt.
Move to Sais
Beginning with the reign of the Pharaoh Psamtik I, the Egyptian capital formally moved to Sais, which remains the capital of the Empire to this day. Despite the transfer, Thebes, the former capital, was maintained, and remained the religious capital of the Empire, where Karnak was.
With the ascnesion of Khufu II to the throne, after his usurptionn of the throne, he moved the capital to Memphis, which was the original capital of the Empire, when it was first founded. During this period, which is now regarded as an era of tyranny, incestuous reltionshipss were revived by the Imperial Family, leading to a steady increase in mental illness throughout the Pharaonic line.
The dynasty was ended with a coup e'tat during the reign of Khufu III, when the military ousted him, leading to the collapse. With that, the capital was returned to Sais, formally ending the Memphite dynasty.
Though the Pharaoh is no longer considered to be a living god as he once was, he is still the head of the Kemetic religion. He is the Grand Priest of Karnak, and is the legal owner of the Temple. The Pharaoh appoints the respective high priests. All Pharaohs since the 1200s have been coronated in Karnak by the high priest of which ever god the Pharaoh chiefly associates with.
The title is hereditary, falling automatically to the Pharaoh's eldest son. The fifth line in the Constitution of Karnak specifies that the Council of Commoners does not have the right to interfere with the line of succession. That said, should the Pharaoh die without
Though there is no specification to the gender of the Pharaoh in the Constitution, traditionally, the Pharaoh is always male. After the reign of Hatshepsut, there have only been three female Regents in the Empire, none of whom ruled as Pharaoh, instead retaining the title "Queen" or "Princess". Al three situtaions were a result of the reigning Pharaoh being unable to properly perform their duties.