The Mindanao Constabulary contains six active divisions, and shares a unique history different than that of the Visayas Constabulary, Luzon Constabulary and the Palawan Constbaulary. While the other three branches of the PNC share their origins solely in the paramilitary and police groups established by the Spanish colonial and later Japanese, American and Philippine governments, the Mindanao Constabulary was formed from an amalgamation of all the historical armed groups in Mindanao.
So this would include the Free Mindanao Army, the paramilitary force that operated in the de facto Republic of Mindanao that fought against the Japanese, American and Philippine occupations, as well as the Royal Sulu Army, the armed force of the short-lived Kingdom of Sulu that eventually merged with the Republic of Mindanao.
By permission of then-president Corazon Aquino, the Mindanao Constabulary gets to share a different history than that of the others, and even use native titles such as Datu. Legally-speaking, the Mindanao Constabulary is considered a descendant of the Mindanao Free Army and Royal Sulu Army. Therefore, Ahmad Salahuddin, the leader of the Free Mindanao Army and Jainal Abirin, the founder of the Royal Sulu Army are considered founding fathers.
Due to the conflicting histories, there is often inter-branch rivalry between the Mindanao Constabulary, and that of the other three island groups. Yet however, the Mindanao Constabulary is known to be the toughest fighting branch of the PNC.
2012 Embassy Riots
On May 3, 2012, Mindanao, as well as Luzon became a hotbed of embassy protests. After a group of Filipino and Mexican prominent proclaimed Philippines as a Hispanic and Catholic nations, both the Mindanao Constabulary and Luzon Constabulary had to be dispatched in their respective islands.
The Mindanao Constabulary was called to several altercations, between native Mindanaoans and non-natives. The 1st Davao City Division, 1st General Santos City Divisions were called into action.
Good Friday Masscre
The Mindanao Constabulary was involved in the pursuit of Enrique Salazar on April 14, 2006, a Visayan Catholic with anti-Mindanao extremist sentiments who went on a shooting spree in Zamboanga City, killing Moro Muslims and Protestant Lumads. Working with the Zamboanga City Police, the 1st Zamboanga City Division and 2nd Zamboanga City Divison apprehended Salazar at a durian and coconut processing warehouse where he held the warehouse's workers at gunpoint, threatening Muslim and Hindu workers, as Protestant and Catholics had been observing Good Friday.
In a brief gunfight, Salazar was shot in the leg and taken to the Zamboanga City Court, and later a military prison in Manila.
2013 Battle of Zamboanga City
In 2013, the Mindanao Constabulary was engaged in a gun-fight with Spanish-speaking Catholic extremists known as the Ilaga. The extremists, were linked to Mexican drug cartels and had captured over 34 people, a mix of Muslims and Protestants to be used a sex slaves and sent to prostitution camps in Mexico.
After a gunfight, three members of the Mindanao Constabulary were killed, 8 of the Ilaga were killed. Among them, two Mexican cartels were captured - Omar Ortiz and Carlos Saragoza.
The hostages had been found at a house in Cagayan de Oro. The Mexican government sent forces in pursuit of the Filipino captives in Mexico, four had been found at a cartel camp in Tijuana. The others as of now, remain missing. This resulted in a three-way dispute, between the Filipino and Mexican governments, as well as local governments of the southern Philippines who suspected that the Filipino and Mexican governments are intentionally making bogus efforts, and had the captives been Catholics and non-natives of Mindanao, the army would hurry for search and rescue missions without a doubt.
Two more captives were found in Los Angeles by the California National Guard, at a prostitution and captive-processing place held by Mexican and Mexican-American gangs.