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Military of Yugoslavia (Wasteland Europe)

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The Peoples Yugoslavian Army (Split up into the Ground Force, Navy and Air Force) is one of the largest in the world and is the only army in Europe that can challenge the USSR's mighty Army of Europe.

History

Origins

The origins of the JNA can be found in the Yugoslav Partisan units of World War II. As part of the antifascist People's Liberation War of Yugoslavia, the People's Liberation Army of Yugoslavia (NOVJ), a predecessor of the JNA, was formed in the town of Rudo in Bosnia and Herzegovina on December 22, 1941. After the liberation of the country from the Axis Powers, that date was officially celebrated as the Day of the Army in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia).

In March 1945, the NOVJ was renamed the Yugoslav Army (Jugoslovenska Armija) and finally on its 10th anniversary on December 22, 1951, received the adjective "People's" (Narodna).

Technology

The early 21st century marked the first period in Yugoslavia's history where Yugoslavia developed its own equipment and its own appliances instead of buying equipment from the USA or USSR. Because of this it has been viewed as the Golden Age of Slavic ingenuity and Yugoslavia is now producing massive amounts of indigenous equipment and armaments. In this time period Yugoslav scientists and intellectuals produced the following equipment;

Vehicles

M-84

The M-84 main battle tank is a Yugoslavian version of the Soviet T-72. Some improvements over the T-72 include a domestic fire-control system, improved composite armor, and a 1000-hp engine. The M-84 entered service with the Yugoslav People's Army in 1984. The improved M-84A version entered service a few years later.

Operational History & Operators

The M-84 saw service in the 1st Bosnian war when Bosnian units defected from the Yugoslav army. M-84 tanks fought of both sides but although Bosniak crews were more skilled than there Slavic counterparts the huge numerical advantage that the Yugoslavians had meant that the Bosniak units were quickly eliminated and no M-84s saw service in the Bosnian side of the 2nd Bosnian war. Some did on the Yugoslav side but they were hideously outclassed by Soviet T-80's and T-90's with all of them being withdrawn just after the war.

The following nations and organisations operate M-84 tanks;

  • Yugolavia
    • The Yugoslav Peoples Army retains 15 M-84A tanks for target practice.
  • Spain
    • The Spanish army uses a modified version of the M-84A as a transport for its engineers.
  • Albania
    • Albania uses 150 M-84's as its main MBT.

M-90

The M-90 tank is roughly equivalent to the Soviet T-90 but it features improved protection and an increased rate of fire. It was built with a mix of Soviet and US equipment but is considered to be a Yugoslavian tank. It entered service in 1990 and was an improved version of the M-84 designed to match Soviet developments. Despite only being a temporary measure the M-90 still remains in service as the reduction of the USSR's size has reduced the need for a permanent replacement. The improved M-96 version entered service in 1997.

Operational History & Operators

The M-90 saw service limited in the 1st Bosnian war when Bosnian units defected from the Yugoslav army. M-90 tanks fought against the M-84's and T-55's/T-72's of the Bosnian army but although Bosniak crews were more skilled than there Slavic counterparts the huge numerical (And Technological) advantage that the Yugoslavians had meant that the Bosniak units were quickly eliminated and no M-90's were captured by the Bosnians. In the 2nd Bosnian War Yugoslavian M-90's made up the majority of the Yugoslav army's tanks and although they were equal to the Soviet T-90's used by the Bosniaks they had greater numbers and it was a push by M-90s that forced Bosnia back to its borders. Since then they have slowly been withdrawn from the Yugoslavian army and replaced by Vihor (Whirlwind) tanks.

The following nations and ogranisations operate M-90 tanks;

  • Yugolavia
    • The Yugoslav Peoples Army maintains 500 M-90/M-96's as its primary MBT although they are in the process of being replaced by Vihor tanks.
  • Spain
    • The Spanish army uses the M-96 as its main MBT.
  • Greece
    • Greece uses the M-90 as its primary MBT but like Yugoslavia they are in the process of replacing them with the Vihor.

Vihor

The M-120 or Vihor (Whirlwind) tank is Yugoslavia's newest tank. It entered service in 2007 and features a similar body to the M-90, However it features an enlarged gun capable of firing missiles and improved armour. Most noticeable however is the Vihors massively overpowered engine. With 2250 BHP the Vihor can reach speeds more normally associated with small cars and with a top speed of 65 MPH it far outclasses its Soviet counterparts in speed.

Operational History & Operators

As the Vihor only entered service in 2007 it has not yet seen active service in combat although it has been used in exercises and war games. In these exercises the Vihor has performed well and Yugoslav strategists believe it is more powerful than the Soviet T-95. The following countries operate the Vihor:

  • Yugoslavia
    • The Yugoslav Peoples Army is in the process of replacing its M-90's with Vihor tanks. Today it operates 250 Vihors with another 500 on order.
  • Greece
    • The Greek Army is in the process of replacing its M-90's with Vihor tanks. Today it operates 50 Vihors with another 200 on order.

Aircraft

Soko G-2

The SOKO G-2 Galeb (Serbian, Croatian Sea Gull) was a two-seat, single engine, advanced trainer, counter-insurgency, ground-attack and reconnaissance aircraft developed by Yugoslavia. It is primarily used as a trainer aircraft but some smaller countries use it as a ground attack aircraft. It is armed with two machine guns and can carry 4 bombs or missiles. As it only has one engine though it is incapable of breaking the sound barrier.

Operational History and Operators

The Soko G-2 is primarily a trainer so it has seen very little active combat. However in the 1st Bosnian war the Bosnian Air Force used the G-2's dedicated to Bosnia to try and defend their airspace from Soko J-22 Ground Attack aircraft, Soko J-24 Bombers, Soko J-21 Reconnaissance aircraft, Soko J-29 Interceptors and Soko J-30 multirole fighters. They were utterly outclassed by the Yugoslavian interceptors and multirole fighters and struggled to intercept even the slow Yugoslavian bombers. The G-2 is used by the following countries:

  • Yugoslavia.
    • The Yugoslav air force maintains two squadrons of G-2's for basic jet training.
  • Greece
    • The Greek air force maintains two squadrons of G-2's for basic jet training and has one squadron for counter insurgency uses.
  • Albania
    • The Albanian air force has seven squadrons of G-2s which are used for a variety of reasons.
  • Bosnia
    • The Bosnian air force maintains two squadrons of G-2's for basic jet training and interception although they have mostly been replaced by MiG-29's.

Soko J-21

A modified version of the SOKO G-4 trainer the J-21 was a reconnaissance aircraft that was predominately used by the Yugoslav air force as a spy aircraft. Armed with a single machine gun and two missiles the Soko J-21 was light and made an excellent spy aircraft, It can reach Mach 2 and has the highest flight ceiling of any Yugoslav built aircraft.

Operational History and Operators

The J-21 is primarily a spy aircraft so it has seen very little combat in any situation but some were used to conduct reconnaissance operations in the 1st Bosnian war, one was shot down by a Soko G-2 but their high ceiling protected them from interception by most Bosnian fighters. However in the 2nd Bosnian War the J-21 was utterly outclassed by the USSR's MiG-29 and they were withdrawn from service. The J-21 is used by the following countries:

  • Yugoslavia.
    • The Yugoslav air force maintains two squadrons of J-21's for advanced jet training and spying.
  • Greece
    • The Greek air force maintains two squadrons of J-21's for advanced training.

Soko J-22

The Soko J-22 Orao (Eagle) is a twin-engined, subsonic, close support, ground attack and tactical reconnaissance aircraft, with secondary capability as low level interceptor. It was built as a single-seat main attack version or as a combat capable two-seat version for advanced flying and weapon training. It was developed as a joint Yugoslav-Romanian project in the 1970s for the air forces of both nations, SOKO building it in Yugoslavia, and Avioane Craiova as the IAR-93 Vultur in Romania. Armed with missiles, cluster bombs, two cannons and five hard points the J-22 was also able to reach high speeds as it had a more powerful engine than its predecessors.

Operational History and Operators

The J-22 was used by the Yugoslavian air force to conduct ground attack operations in the 1st Bosnian war. However in the 2nd Bosnian War the J-22 was outmatched by the USSR interceptors and the Yugoslavian air force was forced to withdraw it from service and replace its use with the J-30 multirole ground attack/interceptor fighter. The J-22 is used by the following countries:

  • Yugoslavia.
    • The Yugoslav air force maintains two squadrons of J-22's as reserve ground attack aircraft.
  • Greece
    • The Greek air force maintains six squadrons of J-22's as its main ground attack aircraft.
  • Albania
    • The Albanian air force has seven squadrons of J-22's which are used as both ground attack and interceptor aircraft.
  • Spain
    • The Spanish Air Force has one squadron of J-22's for ground attack squadrons.

Soko J-24

The Soko J-24 is the only Yugoslavian bomber aircraft, It entered service in 1990 and is powered by two jet engines. It is primarily used as part of the Anti-Soviet Pact's nuclear deterrent and therefore is not normally used in standard combat. However when used in a tactical role it is armed with standard bombs and is an excellent carpet bomber.

Operational History and Operators

The J-24 was used in both the Bosnian Wars and the 2006 USSR/Yugoslavia nuclear crisis. In the Bosnian Wars it was used to conduct carpet bombing on Bosnian forces and during the nuclear crisis two of them were on their way to Moscow armed with nukes before they were called off by the Yugoslavian High Command. In the Bosnian Wars one was shot down by Bosnian interceptors but for the rest of the war they were escorted by J-29 and J-30 fighters. The J-24 is used by the following countries:

  • Yugoslavia.
    • The Yugoslav air force maintains one squadron of J-24's as part of its nuclear deterrent and a squadron for use in tactical situations.

Soko J-30/J-29

The Soko J-30 was the first multirole fighter developed by SOKO industries. It was designed to replace both the MiG-29 interceptors bought from the USSR and the J-22 ground attack aircraft. It is a supersonic aircraft and is armed with two nose cannons, missiles, bombs and has 11 hard points (Including two on the wings). The J-29 is a pure intercept version and is armed purely with missiles and guns.

Operational History and Operators

The Soko J-30 was first used in the Bosnian wars when they were used by the Yugoslavians to conduct ground attack operations and to escort the J-24 bombers and the J-22 ground attack aircraft. It has never been shot down in combat and a J-29 was responsible for the first kill made against a Mig-35. The J-29/J-30 is used by the following countries:

  • Yugoslavia.
    • The Yugoslav air force maintains five squadrons of J-29's and ten squadrons of J-30's as its primary fighter aircraft.
  • Spain
    • The Spanish air force maintains five squadrons of J-29's and ten squadrons of J-30's as its primary fighter aircraft.

Branches

Ground Force

The Yugoslav Ground Force is the largest section of the Yugoslav Army but is less well funded than the Yugoslav Air Force and traditionally takes less of a public role. All Yugoslav citizens conduct six months active service in the Yugoslav Ground Forces and another year in the Defense Force of there Republic, They can also be recalled at any time while they are they between the ages of 18 and 50. In addition to the drafted soldiers their is also a professional complement to the Yugoslav Ground Force that is mostly Serbian dominated and is concentrated around the Ground Forces armoured complement and a Croatian dominated airborne assault force.

Air Force

The Yugoslav Air Force is widely regarded as the most professional and disciplined of the four Yugoslav branches. The YAF receives the most funding from the government and is entirely professional. As benefits from the most popular of the Yugoslav Army branches it is very ethnically mixed and isn't dominated by any ethnic group. Traditionally however the officer classes are generally Croatians while non combat forces are generally Serbian.

Navy

The Yugoslav Navy is the second smallest of the four Yugoslav Army branches and receives the lowest funded. It is mostly equipped with ex-Spanish equipment and unlike the other branches is entirely dominated by one ethnic group. The entire navy is mostly Croatian although there are a few Serbs who serve in the Navy.

Special Forces

The Special Air Corps or SVK is the elite branch of the Yugoslav Army, it is made up of soldiers, paratroopers and pilots who have shown extreme bravery within there respective branches of the Army. Traditionally it receives the most public attention and is tasked with conducting special operations against enemies of the Socialist Republic. They receive the best equipment of any part of the Army, for example while the normal Ground Force has only just started receiving shipments of the Vihor tank the Special Forces tank department has been equipped with them since there introduction in 2007. Likewise it uses Spanish S-108 assault rifles instead of reproduced AK-74's and J-30 aircraft instead of J-22's.

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