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From April 2016 UN Peacekeeping forces begun to enter Syria, Iraq and Kurdistan.
International coalitions against Da'esh
5 September 2014
On the 5th of September at the 2014 NATO summit in Wales, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry separately met with various Ministers from the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Australia, Turkey, Denmark and Italy, and pressed them to support intervention against Da'esh, primarily militarily and financially. The nine countries agreed to support anti-ISIL forces in Iraq and Syria with supplies and air support.
3 September 2014
On 3rd December 2014, diplomats and (foreign) ministers from 59 countries gathered at NATO headquarters, Brussels, to decide a way forward against the threat of ISIL. U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry stated, to the group, that "defeating the ideology, the funding, the recruitment" of Da'esh must be primary aim of the discussions, as opposed to airstrikes.
These nations were the same ten nations as above, as well as an additional number. They styled themselves as the Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and agreed a strategy which included:
- Exposing Da'esh's true nature;
- Cutting of Da'esh's financing and funding
- Supporting military operations
On 15th September 2014, on the 'International Conference on Peace and Security in Iraq', 26 countries were represented. They agreed to support the Iraqi government with military assistance, and reaffirmed their commitment to UNSC Resolution 2170 of 15th August, which condemned all trade with Da'esh and urged the prevention of financial donations and payments of ransoms to ISIL.
In retaliation for the November 2015 Paris attacks, the French Air Force increased and intensified airstrikes against ISIL targets in Syria.
Towards the end of September 2015, Russia, Iraq, Iran and Syria set up a 'joint information center' in Baghdad to "gather process and analyse current information about the situation in the Middle East - primarily for fighting IS" On 30th September Russia began its air campaign in support of the Syrian government. Russia was also reported to have reached agreements on co-ordination on Syrian operations with Jordan and Israel.
The 2015 Erbil Conference meant that Kurdistan withdrew from the Russian-led coalition, but continues to co-operate with them. On the 14th March 2016, Vladimir Putin announced a partial withdrawal from Syrian territory, citing the success of the ongoing ceasefire and greater security of the Syrian government.
Islamic nations coalition
On 14th December 2015, Saudi Deputy Crown Prince and Defence Minister Mohammed bin Salman al Saud announced that 34 nations would partner in the fight against Islamic extremism, which Salman referred to as a "disease". The coalition, based in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, includes Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, Guinea, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Maldives, Mali, Malaysia, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Turkey, Togo, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
United Nations Peacekeeping Force
Several proposals had been put forth for Peacekeeping, and UNSCR 2281 established a peacekeeping force, predominately in Kurdistan, to stabilise the region. It established 'Green Camps' where those under threat of persecution could seek refuge. The Resolution was passed on 10th April 2016. Preparations were made and on the 12th April units from around the world, lead by Scotland, landing from 26th April 2016. Whilst there are still large numbers of migrants, it has been hailed for helping cut down on the number of refugees being forced to move away from the countries.
Da'esh is suspected of involvement in, or responsibility for, the terrorist attacks in Turkey in May 2013 in Reyhanli and March on Turkish police, kidnapping 49 Turkish diplomats in June 2014, the 5th June 2015 Diyarbakir rally bombing, and the 20 July 2015 Suruc bombing, killing 32 young activists. In September 2014, Turkey joined a US-led coalition 'to fight ISIL'.
In mid-June 2014, American and British sources show that Iran sent Major General Qasem Soleimani of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution to Iraq to help it organize against ISIL. Iran has started flying drones over Iraq, and Reuters, amongst others, have reported Iranian soldiers in Iraq.
In July, Iran sent several Su-25 aircraft to Iraq, and in early August they began combat against ISIL. The support is reportedly increasing, and in 2015 American commentators indicated that Qasem Soleimani was "leading Iraq's military strategy against ISIL".