The Duchy of Milan is a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire, in OTL northern Italy. Created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns and a wide rural area lying between the hills of Montferrat and the Venetian Lagoon,
Strategically placed at the gateway to the Italian peninsula, Milan and the surrounding region of Lombardy have been the subject of constant disputes over the centuries. Celts, Romans, Goths, Lombards, Spaniards and Austrians have all ruled the city at some stage of its history and for the most part, the city has capitalised on its position and has emerged today as the undisputed economic and cultural powerhouse of a united Italy, not without occasionally fighting back against foreign dominators. Milan’s origin goes back to 400 B.C., when Gauls settled and defeated the Etruscans against Celts who were about to overrun the city.
Capital of the Western Roman Empire
In 222 B.C. the city was conquered by Romans and it was annexed to the Roman Empire, getting the name of Mediolanum. It became a permanent Latin colony in 89 B.C. after few attempts to rebellions. By 42 B.C. Rome had exerted its hold over Cisalpine Gaul (that means 'Gaul this side of the Alps') sufficiently to make the city officially part of its Italian territories. In his reorganisation of Italy in 15 B.C., emperor Augustus made Milan the capital of Transpadania region, including the towns of Como, Bergamo, Pavia and Lodi and extending as far west as Turin. Due to its strategic position (it was placed between the Italian peninsula and those areas beyond the Alps where Roman interests were widespread) the name changed into Roma Secunda.
From 292 A.D. Mediolanum became the effective capital of the western emperor. It was a very important center for the consolidation of the new Christian religion. Some Milanese churches have early Christian origins. After 313 A.D., the year of the Edict of Tolerance towards Christianity issued by Constantine the Great, many churches were built and the first bishop, St Ambrose, was appointed: Ambrogio was such an influential person that the church became the Ambrosian Church. Although Milan became less important as the Roman Empire declined. The city suffered the invasion of Lombards who first sacked (539 A.D.) and then conquered it in 569 A.D. . The capital of the Roman–Barbaric kingdom of the Longobards was instead Pavia. Milan's rebirth just began with Carolingian rule in the 8th century.
The bishops used the Lombard influence to built an alliance with the emperor Ottone of Saxony and got even more powerful. The Church was given precedence over the landed nobility, whose power was consequently reduced and, allied with the 'cives' (city–dwelling merchants or tradesmen), the clergy became the effective rulers of Lombardy's increasingly wealthy cities from around the start of the new millennium. At the beginning of the year 1000 the archbishop of Milan became the most powerful person in Northern Italy.
In 1117 Milan became a municipality after a series of political difficulties and it acquitted itself of the archbishop. Milan also expanded by declaring war to other cities of the area. During this period the city was governed by democratic laws and built the Palazzo della Ragione as a seat fo its political self–rule. After that Frederick I of Swabia (named Frederick Barbarossa) tried many times to conquer the city, in 1167 the 'Comuni' (towns run by the people) banded together in the Lombard League and in 1176 Barbarossa was defeated definitively during the famous Battle of Legnano. Beginning in 1200 Milan’s importance increased intensively and finally became a "Seigneury" (feudalism). The city considerably changed mainly in its appearance; some examples were the extension of the city walls, the construction of new buildings and the development of new paved streets.
The Duchy of Milan, was created 1 May 1395, when Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Milan, purchased a diploma for 100,000 Florins from King Wenceslaus. It was this diploma that installed, Gian Galeazzo Visconti as Duke of Milan and Count of Pavia. At its foundation the duchy included 26 towns and spanned from the hills of Montferrat to the Lagoons of Venice, and included all the former towns of the Lombard League.
The government of Milan is a hereditary monarchy. The title of Duke is used.
- Francesco Sforza
- Ludovico Sforza (current Duke)
The Duchy is divided in 26 towns, counting Milan. The City of Pesaro in Italy is also part of the Duchy under the rule of Alessandro Sforza
Allies and Trade partners
- Grand Duchy of Bavaria
- Papal States
- Swiss Confederacy
- Any enemy of the Emperor
- Any rebels in the HRE
Colonies and Vassals
The Republic of Genoa is controlled by the Campofregoso family and friends, a puppet faction that depends in the Milanese nobility to rule the Republic.
IMG Western Fleet
Genoa is the base of the Great Western Fleet of the Imperial Merchants Guild.
Asti and Montferrat
Asti and Montferrat are two States of the HRE both under the rule of William IX, the nobility in both States is loyal to the Sforza and depends on them to rule.
Francesco Gallura is a preacher who has great influence in the movement against Catholicism. He heads a group of theologians, monks and professors who heavily criticize the Catholic Church. His doctrine includes:
- Justification by faith.
- Depravity does not prevent free will.
- Conversion through synergism.
- Deny the Pope's right to grant pardons on God's behalf.
- Repentance is not achieve through sacraments. All other authorities are subordinate to, and are to be corrected by, the written word of God's penance.
- The Catholic Church has usurped divine attributes or qualities for the Church and its hierarchy, also the Church has invented numerous heretic doctrines. The Catholic Church is an heretic institution that must be replaced.
Galluranism is popular with the merchants, poor nobles, rural priests, artists, intellectuals and the small medium class. A branch of Gallunarism preached by his brother Silvio Gallura, is popular in the peasants and more poor groups, it's radically more integrative and social focused. Both branches survive together and the differences are ignored thanks to all the commmonalities between both doctrines. Both brothers are well connected and thanks to this the persecution has failed in capture them. The followers of the Gallura bothers are not restrained to Asti and Montferrat, many Milanese, Savoyan and Swiss people follow secretly the Gallura sermons.