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Middle East, 610-750 (Saint Muhammad)

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The following is a timeline of the Middle East in the Saint Muhammad timeline.

  • 610: POD. Muhammad begins preaching a new branch of Christianity. He soon is able to gain a growing base of followers in Mecca which soon angers the Hedjazi tribal lords.
  • 615: Muhammad is killed in Mecca by a Quraysh-hired assassin while he is preaching in Mecca's main square. The Medinan Christian community (led by Muhammad's daughter Fatimah I), furious, flees to Medina where, with the help of the Abrahamic communities there, they are able to form a standing army. The War of the Hijaz starts.
  • 621: the Medinans march on Mecca and soon destroy any opposition by destroying the joint Quaraysh, Thaqf and Khinanan troops near Jidda with the help of the Umayyad and Hashemite branches of the Banu Quaraysh and the powerful intervention of the recently-converted Ghatafan tribe. The War of the Hijaz ends with the surrender of the pagan Arabian tribes and the establishment of the Empire of Mecca, which will soon become the first Arabian tribe to take hold over the whole Peninsula.
  • 630: Fatimah begins a campaign against the tribal kingdom of Kinda after it refuses to convert to Christianity, which starts the First Arabian Unification War.
  • 631: The tribal kingdoms of Kinda and the remaining parts of Oman not under Sassanid control (which would later become the Trucial State), unprepared for the Medinans' fierce fighting prowess, fall quickly under the Medinan aggression. The independent Arabian tribes are now unified.
  • 632: Byzantium offers Fatimah a treaty in which the emperor promises the Ghassanid and Lakhmid kingdoms of the Medinans in exchange for their assistance on a war against the Sassanids. Fatimah doesn't agree as she's afraid the pagan tribes will revolt.
  • 635: Fatimah dies, killed by an unknown factor. Her uncle, 'Ali, agrees to the Byzantine deal and, Coordinating with the Byzantine emperor's invasion of Sassanid Armenia, he invades Persia. Within days, the Lakhmid kingdom has fallen and the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 635-650 has been declared. By May, Hila, Babylon and Assur have fallen, and the Persians, once again surprised by Medina's fighting prowess, are forced to quickly withdraw.
  • 640: Counter-attacks have stabilized the front line in the Tigris River. The first war described by some as a "trench war" is being fought.
  • SMMidEast650

    The Middle East after the Treaty of Palmyra in 650.

    650:
    The War ends with the Treaty of Palmyra. All of Armenia is given to the Byzantines. The Sassanid possessions of Bahrayn, Oman and the Lakhmid kingdom are given to the Medinans, and Saba being given to the Christian Aksumite Kingdom.. 'Ali dies shortly afterwards under mysterious circumstances. The next claimant is Ali's nephew Zainab.
  • 652: The Sassanid Emperor Yazdegerd leads a campaign against Byzantium in order to recover lost lands. In the short and undeclared War of Trebizond the Persians are able to reach as far as Pontus before Yazdegerd being killed.
  • Middle East SM Aram

    the new Empire of Aram

    SMTreatyofBabylon

    The treaty of Babylon resulted in the foundation of two new states; Armenia (shown in dark blue) and Aram (shown in yellow).

    653: Yazdegerd's child Peroz III becomes Persian Emperor, but, as he is very young, declares a regency by the Persian aristocrats, who decide to accord "everlasting peace and friendship" with the Byzantines in the Treaty of Babylon, claiming "the wars have given us more good than harm". In it, Armenia and Aram are declared independent. This measure is extremely unpopular both in Persia and Byzantium; however, both Peroz and Constans' son Konstantine are too young so to oppose the measure.
  • 665: Peroz banishes the aristocratic regency and declares the Treaty to be void. He soon amasses a huge army and marches on Armenia. However, an aristocrat, claiming descent from the Arsacid dynasty and promising support for the Christians in Persia, declares himself to be the rightful king of Persia, styling himself Arsaces LI. He soon amasses an army in Gombroon (Bandar 'Abbas). This starts the Persian War of Succession of 667-673.
  • 667: Peroz's army is forced to return from Armenia after the Peace of Yerevan is signed, a makeshift peace accord signed when the news of the War come to Peroz' knowledge. Peroz marches southwards so to attack Arsaces' army.
  • 668: Zainab dies and Ali's son Hussayn succeeds to the throne. He marries Shahrbanu, Peroz' sister. The Muhammadan-Sassanid ties forment the Medinan army to march eastwards and meet Peroz' troops in eastern Mandaestan (OTL Khuzestan). A large battle is fought near OTL Shiraz, in which the Sassanid troops are defeated. Peroz is taken prisoner by Arsaces. The victory convinces fellow Arsacids in Armenia to invade Persia in Arsaces LI's favour.
  • 670: Konstantinos becomes of age to rule. Seeing that the other powers are distracted in the East, he invades Armenia. As it is entirely unprepared, huge amounts of territory fall within few minutes. This starts the Byzantine March on Armenia. In Persia, a battle is won by the Sassanid-Medinan armies near OTL , who recover Peroz (in extremely bad shape after his captivity by the Arsacids).
  • 671: Peroz's firstborn son, Narsieh, who recently became of age, is given temporary command of the monarchy until Peroz recovers from the captivity. He soon takes victories over the Arsacids in Ectabana and OTL Rasht.
  • 672: The Armenian Arsacids are forced to retreat to Armenia as Konstantinos nears Dvin, the capital. The Arsacid armies are defeated by the (now recovered) Peroz in Gombroon.
  • 673: Arsaces LI and the remains of his army flee westwards and establish a small independent state in OTL's Kathiawad Peninsula, forming the Parsi Empire. This nation would later become the Indian state of Parsistan later on.
  • ArmeniaCollapsemapSM

    The Arsacid Armenian kingdom during the Collapse. Sassanid-controlled territories in yellow, Heraclian-controlled ones in green and Arsacid-controlled ones in red. Note the principal front near Yerevan.

    674: The Arsacids in Armenia are attacked by the Sassanid branch of said country as a continuation of the Persian War of Succession (known as the Arsacid Armenian Collapse by historians). A cadet member of the Heraclian branch also claims power.
  • 675: The Arsacids are forced to retire first to Yerevan and then to Tiflis in Iberia after the Sassanids and Heraclians near the Armenian heartland. Peasants in Iberia and Albania begin claiming their independence.
  • 676: The Baku Rebellion causes the Sassanid claimant to retire to the Albanian/Udi-speaking territories of Armenia and proclaim the Kingdom of Udistan (or Azerbaijan).
  • ArmeniaCollapsemap2SM

    The collapse of the Arsacid Empire in Armenia.

    677: Iberian peasants declared their independence from Arsacid Armenia as the Iberian Kingdom, an elective monarchy. Byzantium invades and annexes its former territories. Madmen turned prophets preach ancient religions partially reviving them (this was known as the Pagan Revival). This increases religious tensions in the Middle East.
  • 678: The Khazar Empire invades Iberia. Shortly afterwards, its king converts to Judaism in order to gain the sympathy of the local Jewish communities (large in several areas of all Byzantium, Armenia, the Sassanid Empires and Arabia).
  • 679: Arabia expulses several clans of Jews (south to Ethiopian Saba) and pagans (to the areas around Gombroon and the Arabian areas of Aram and Byzantium).
  • 683: Increase of Slavic militancy in the Danube leads to Konstantinos XI to re-establish the theme system so to protect Bulgaria (see Europe, 610-750). Byzantium also is threatened by "barbarians" by the Khazars to the East and the Arabs and Berbers to the south and east. Aram was also eyeing Alexandretta (home of the important city of Antioch) and Cicilia (a vital military position). Tension with the Patriarchates of Alexandria and Jerusalem (which the Byzantines persecuted, and the Arabs, as more ideologically similar [both were more egalitarian and liberal than the Byzantine state] supported) rose. Tensions were similar in Peroz's Persia, where Manichaeism and Mandaeism continued rising, as well as Nestorianism. To top it off, Judaism was starting to take a hold in both Khazaria and Iberia, and the Khazars were sending missionaries south, while the pagan communities continued to spread. The Religious Crisis of the VIII Century's roots were planted.
  • 685: The tribes exiled to Syria request Nestorius II, Emperor of Aram, Konstantinos, king of Aksum, and Konstantinos, Emperor of Byzantium, to declare war on the Medinan Empire. Aksum and Aram agree and soon invade Arabia, starting the First Arabian War.
  • 686: Most of the desert territories of Aram fall to the Arabian attacks, as does all of Saba until Sana'a, where the Medinan advance is halted by Axumite armies. The Byzantines, feeling threatened by Medina's advance, mobilize their Arabian theme, while the Sassanids, preparing to uphold their treaties with the Medinans, amass troops near Mandaestan.
  • 687: Skirmishes between occupying Arabs and Greeks and Aramaic pleads for Greek help lead to Byzantium entering the war with a Byzantine legion marching east and freeing part of Nabatea. In response, the Sassanid Empire marches its own troops west into Aram and the Duchy of Armenia. While the Medinans put up good resistance, the fact their fighting tactics also exist in the other side of the battle line and that the Byzantine army is well-armed cause them to retreat. Aram, however, pulls back to Syria and Mesopotamia, abandoning both Aramaic Arabia and Mandaestan.
  • 688: Axumite troops overwhelm the Arabic ones in Saba, although they suffer heavy losses due to inferior fighting tactics.
  • 690: Ali, Zainab's son, launches yet another offensive against Nabatea and Mesopotamia. He also launches an attempt at naval assault on southern Mesopotamia, which proved to be a great error as the Aramaic navy deploys a recent invention, known as "Chaldean Fire" (invented by the Syriac Theophanes of Baalbek) which destroys the small Arabic navy easily. The Arabs' morale drops with continued defeats around the region.
  • 692: The Ethiopians launch an invasion north to Hedjaz. The Aramaic army also deals a fatal blow to the Arab one in a battle near Hila in which 'Ali is captured. Zainab dies of a stroke shortly afterwards, and his grandson is forced to take the throne temporarily. However, as he is still very young, he sues for peace almost immediately. The Quintisext Council between Roman and Greek Christians is held; however, it comes to naught.
  • TreatyofMeccaSM

    The Treaty of Mecca drastically altered the Middle Eastern map and demographics, marked Aram's golden age, and propelled Axum to its own.

    694: The Treaty of Mecca is signed, in which the regions of Elam and Bahrayn are granted to Aram while part of Hadramawt is granted to Axum. Peroz III dies from sickness.
  • 695: 'Ali bin Zainab dies under mysterious circumstances in his way to the coronation in Medina. Muhammad, his own son, takes the throne permanently. At the same time, the Byzantine people revolt against Constantine due to his heavy taxation, the weariness from the many wars, and the friendly relations with the Welsh, who, as heretics, as seen as inferior by the Greeks. Anastasius, a (devoutly Christian and Hellenic autonomist) military general, ascends to the throne.
  • 696: The Greek and Roman Christians once again meet in the Council of Constantinople; however, it once again ends in naught, and the relationships between both sides continue decaying. In order to establish a foothold on the West, Emperor Anastasius sends missionaries to establish a council with the Celtic Church in Wales. Partially successful, this is seen as a hazard by Western Christians.
  • 698: The Great Schism begins with the Patriarch of Constantinople demanding the Pope to stop using unleavened bread and the use of the word "filioque" in prayers, only to realize the Pope has died and the cardinals have entered conclave.
  • 699: Pope John VI is elected, even though Anastasius or the Patriarch agreed to the selection. John VI even goes as far as outright denying the Patriarch's demands.
  • 700: The Patriarch and John VI excommunicate each other. Protests in Byzantium over the separation by people who want to become loyal destabilize Anastasius' reign. The Miaphysites take this as a sign of rebellion, which the Medinans openly help. Manichaeans and Mandaics also revolt in their respective regions, starting the Religious Crisis of the VIII Century.
  • 701: The Medinans and Axumites, turning against their old feuds and allies so to rescue their theologically similar "brethren" in the Levant, Egypt and Syria, while Jews begin returning to Palestine to help Phoenicians and Palestinian Arabs in their attempt on separatism. Linguistically similar Phoenicians in Carthage also revolt and move to northern Canaan, at the same time as Medina mobilizes its troops around the Aram (Nabatean)-Medinan border. Byzantium and Aram, also threatened, once again mobilize their Nabatean borders.
  • 702: Aramaic Emperor Nestorius, afraid of foreign aggression, grants the Medinan army access to closed passages between Medinan and Byzantine territory. Byzantium demands Aram its own passage through Alexandretta and Syria, however, Nestorius refuses.
  • 703: Byzantium declares war on Aram and Medina after the Incident of Nazareth where a Medinan preacher aided by local Nabateans is caught by Byzantine troops. Byzantium declares it'll "cleanse the lizard-ridden, barbaric non-Chalcedonian nations of their heresy". The War of the Trinity is started. Soon, Byzantine troops launch an attack on the rebel stronghold of Tyre, but fail and begin the long Siege of Tyre.
  • 704: Its assumed by many that the first community anthem (that of the Greek Pagans, the Ode to Apollo) and the first national one (that of the Empire of Mecca) were first considered an ode to the respective communities around this time. Nestorius II dies and is replaced by his son Nestorius III.
  • 705: A joint Phoenician, Aramaic and Arab army sweeps south through Judea and soon takes Jerusalem, where local Jews and Phoenicians revolt and open the gates of Jerusalem after a bloody fight inside. Arameans attempt to block the Siege of Tyre, but they are unsuccessful even with Chaldean fire. The Tyrians, however, are not discouraged.
  • 706: The Tyrians continue resisting, while the rest of Judea and Phoenicia falling to Allied forces. Attacks are launched at Sinai and Cappadocia.
  • 707: The Cappadocian offensive fails spectacularly at a battle near OTL Aksaray. A second attempt by the Aramaic armies, both by land and sea, once again fails miserably. The Arabs launch an attack south into Coptic Egypt.
  • 708: The Byzantine troops defeat the Arabs in the Nile and force them back to Sinai. A third Aramaic attempt breaks the Byzantine siege for just enough time so to bring reinforcements and supplies into the city before being pulled back by a Byzantine reinforcement.
  • 709: A second and third offensive into Cappadocia fail once again, with the whole Middle East falling into some sort of stalemate. Aramaic diplomats begin lobbying in Armenia so to persuade them to join the fight.
  • 710: The hundredth year of Medinan Christianity arrives and is celebrated throughout Medina.
  • 711: Armenia at last joins the war and soon makes the fourth offensive of Capadocia and soon march north on Trebizond and west on Galatia.
  • 712: Byzantine troops are defeated terribly on Ionia as well as on Egypt. The Siege of Tyre at last ends with a fifth and final Aramaic offensive finally breaking the Byzantine fleet. The First Siege of Constantinople begins, although the Aramaic fleet is not able to block the Golden Horn.
  • 715: Alexandria and Thebes fall in the south, while Constantinople holds on. The war, however, is obviously drawing to a close.
  • 721: Constantinople finally falls, with Anastasius dying in the battle. The Byzantine Empire sues for peace, ending one of the bloodiest wars of the Middle East. In the Treaty of Constantinople, the Phoenician Empire is recognised, as well as Axum's claims over the Nubian states (see North-East Africa, 610-750).
  • 722: Anastasius' son, Anastasius, inherits the throne, and proves to be one of the worst leaders in Byzantine history. Narsieh of Persia dies and his son Khosrau VI ascends to the throne.
  • 723: Copts once again revolt. The Persian Empire once again bursts into the Western world after joining the alliance against the Byzantines. The Parsi Empire does the same de facto out of aid for Armenia, putting old feuds aside
  • 725: Allied garrisons withdraw from Anatolia
  • 727: The War of the Trinity resurges as the Copt Revolt when, once again, the allied troops launch yet another attack at Egypt so to aid the Copts. The Persian troops, led by Khosrau himself, overwhelm the poorly-armed and devastated Byzantine army. The Byzantine army and navy entirely withdraw to Constantinople to protect it from a second sacking.
  • SMNAfricaafterByzantineCollapse

    the Maghreb after the Copt Revolt (see North-East Africa, 610-750

    728: Anastasius II, with a lack of common sense, gives up the Maghreb but Ceuta to Miaphysite and Punic revolters. The Kingdom of Kimit, Pentapolis and Tripolitania and the Second Carthaginian Empire are born.
  • 729: With a united block of nations spreading around from India to Italy, something that will rarely be repeated, the Allied Golden Age, a period of huge technological and military advancement in the Middle East. This time wouldn't be lacking in conflict, albeit it would be far more pacific than other eras in the Middle Easterner history. Nestorius III reinstates the Akkadian language as a dynastic and liturgical language together with Aramaic.
  • 730: Khosrau is assassinated by pro-Greek vassals, and his son, Shapur, is crowned while unborn in utero by placing the crown over the Queen's belly (the second in the world to be crowned in that way, after his namesake). Surprisingly enough, he will become as celebrated as Shapur II despite his constantly-changing religious favour, and is thought by non-mainstream Zoroastians in India as a reincarnation of Shapur II.
  • 731: The first major breakthrough of Indian medicine into the west is the (relatively obscure) reaching of the inoculation of smallpox, originally only taken by neo-Pagans throughout the Middle East, with mainstream Zoroastrians, Christians and Jews condemning it.
  • 732: Ancient Greek and Latin texts are also translated by the religious minorities in the Middle East. From cannon buffer, the minorities begin to become the best medics and mechanics of the region. This is also reflected in the West (although it will take some time for it to go there), where soon prominent neo-Pagan, Zoroastrian and Nestorian families like the Medici will become among Europe's richest and most powerful families out of advanced medicine practices.
  • 733: Nestorius III is replaced by his second-born son Ili-bāni-apli (literally in Neo-Akkadian, "God has provided a heir", and whose Christian/Aramaic, more common name is Ephraim I, ܐܦܪܝܡ, Afrêm), who soon sets on restoring Nabuchenedezzar's Babylon as well as improving several other cities. He soon starts on establishing further influence into the cities of Damascus and Eliat, naming his two oldest children, Simeon and Shimun, Princes of Damascus and Eliat respectively.
  • 734: Shapur's mother is declared Regent of the Realm until Shapur is of age to rule.
  • 735: Emperor Antonius I of Egypt competes against Afrêm chartering a city, Pi-Antonius in the Tiran Strait so to control Eliat's trade and declare the whole Gulf (contested with Arabia, Aram and the Levant) Coptic territory. Afrêm and Muhammad II cooperate and establish a fortress in the Isle of Tiran so to protect their own interests in the Gulf. Albeit tensions arise, there is no war declared.
  • 736: Afrêm begins work in the building of a new city in the Nabatean coast outside of the Gulf of Eliat called Yesû (derived from the Aramaic-Hebrew for "Jesus"). He withdraws Shimun from the Princedom of Eliat and names him Prince of Yesû. This entirely frustrates Antonius' attempt over controlling Aram. Muhammad II begins building monumental churches in Medina, Mecca and establishes a military settlement on the Arabian side of the Strait of Hormuz.
  • 738: With more money flowing into the Aramaic arks, Afrêm is able to continue work on Yesû far more quickly. Muhammad dies suddenly and is replaced by his daughter Khadija. A far more imperialist Empress, she demands more tribute from Afrêm as well as the withdrawal of any Aramaic troops and builders from the base. Afrêm, not wishing another war, agrees.
  • 739: The building of Yesû continues while Afrêm begins to build a complex road system throughout the trade routes and the main cities in the Empire. Afrêm looks for an alliance with the Levantines and the Persians against the Medinans, although nothing yet happens.
  • 740: Antonius is assassinated (maybe by his son Ptolemy, anxious over inheriting the throne). Ptolemy, a pro-Pagan, re-opens and begins rebuilding several temples in Upper Egypt (where the highest concentration of neo-Pagans is). The temple in Behedet (Idfu) soon takes importance over others. Ptolemy stops amassing the army in the Sinai and begins improving relations with Afrêm of Aram.
  • 741: Conflicts between Khadija and the Axumite Emperor over Saba begins. The Axumite Confederation, until now relatively isolated, begins to arm up in Saba. A large defensive and monument system is built in the southern cost so to defy Khadija.
  • 742: Yesû's principal economic foundations are finished, and the port begins to attract a large number of commercial ships. Khadija continues mobilising troops in the border with Aram and the now-finished port in Tiran. Ptolemy and Adre'az of Axum continue mobilising so to counter the Arabian advance.
  • 743: Yesû's political foundations are finished as well, and the money of the Aramaic arks begins to be destined towards the road system. Afrêm personally visits the Babylon-Ctesiphon-Seleucia-Susa section of the route. Shapur II, although not yet of age to rule, declares his intention on rebuilding the old imperial capital of Persepolis so to affirm his dynastic connections with the Achaemenid Empire and replace the imperial capital (moving since the loss of Ctesiphon and now in Nishapur). Afrêm begins building of a Hanging Gardens of Babylon/Royal Palace in a small villa in the outskirts of Babylon.
  • 744: Anastasius II dies and his son Theodosius ascends to the throne. A remarkably more notable leader than Anastasius, he travels to Aram, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Axum and Nishapur so to accord peace with the nations. Byzantium, however, knowing its days of dominance in the Middle East are long over, decides to start influencing the Maghreb and Europe instead.
  • 745: Aram's principal road, stretching from Yesû and Eliat in the west to Susa in the East and Antioch in the north is finished to a degree. Medina and the other Allied nations go to some sort of "war council" so to try to stop the arm-up. Although a compromise is agreed upon, the council was mostly useless.
  • 749: The Gardens' basics are placed into operation since it was placed under intensive construction, although most of the Gardens are still in progress. Afrêm orders the construction of the Gardens to be continued and that of Petra to be started when time is available. Then, he abdicates in favour of his son Simeon of Damascus. He retires to the Gardens to enjoy music and arts in his later years. Simeon adopts the Akkadian name Yamel Illi.
  • 750: Simeon continues with Afrêm's building policies continuing with the Gardens of Babylon. He also begins planning the reconstruction of the city of Petra as a midway between Eliat and Yesû and Babylon and Ctesiphon-Seleucia. Khadija begins building a group of fortresses and military bases on the border with Aram.


Analysis by 750

The Middle East has changed drastically since the POD in 610. The bi-polar region with only the Sassanid and Byzantine Empires under collapse has nearly collapsed with the establishment of several new economic and political powers such as Egypt, the Levant and most important of all, Medina and Aram. The competence over Armenia has collapsed with Armenia itself collapsing into several small nations. Byzantium especially has lost its power, and Persia, although still a superpower, is soon to lose influence.


The new 140 years also brought something very important for the region; Barbarian invasions. Although it was only a small amount with the Khazar offensive, and most of the offensives happened in Central Asia, the Khazars brought a very important change for the region.


Finally, the VIII Century brought an incredible change of the (somewhat) simple religious background on the Middle East to a complex one. Huge pagan minorities have appeared, and the Jews and minorities have gained momentum in formerly homogenous Christian areas. The Century also brought a religious-based division of most nations (with the notable exception being the Levantine Confederation) and with the Schism, a weakening of the previously dominant Chalcedonian rite. Although most of these effects would be felt in the second half of the VIII Century, already several religious problems have arisen.


In medical and cultural terms, the Middle East also experienced a massive rehaul during the Allied Golden Age. The beginning of the yet unfinished Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Petra as well as the discovery by the west of smallpox inoculation were very important. However, once again, the changing is only starting.



Arabia before Muhammad Muhammad and the VIII Century: 610-750 The Golden Age, Aram's Splendour and the IX Century:
750-900

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