The United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos), commonly known as Mexico is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Central America (Guatemala before 1921), British Honduras, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico.
The Revolution (1910-1920)
First Revolutionary Consensus (1920-1940s)
After the triumph of the revolutionary generals and full enactment of the Constitution, the new ruling group organized itself into the National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional Revolucionario, PNR). The PNR was the only party that held power in the country, by means of democratic elections and extensive electoral intervention or fraud. The PNR was created has an effort to stop the violent struggle for power between the victorious factions of the Mexican Revolution, and guarantee the peaceful transmission of power for members of the party. This system was generally called the First Revolutionary Consensus (el Primer Consenso Revolucionario).
Second Revolutionary Consensus (Since 1940s)
However in the 1940s this system falls due to criticism to the old governing group and conflicting views on economic development (state capitalism or socialism), foreign relations (closer ties with US versus closer relations with rest of America and anti-imperialism), constitutional rights (social and political), land reform, Indigenismo and growing demands from emerging social groups. This split the PNR in a left-wing party (Partido de la Revolución Mexicana, PRM) and a center-wing party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI). Each one having support in the state bureaucracy, worker's unions, farmers' cooperatives and urban groups. Common policies are no reelection, industrialization, promotion of social change, education for all, anticleralism and the monopoly of power by the revolutionary family (PRM and PRI). Electoral laws where changed to keep the representation of both parties. This created a two party system with mechanism of bipartisanship (el Segundo Consenso Revolucionario. In English, Second Revolutionary Consensus) that has keep in power the revolutionary family. Other parties are usually tolerated and limited representation is given, has long as it does not put in peril the revolutionary family.
Organization of Federal government
According to the Constitution, the federal republic is organized as follows:
- The Executive, is the President of the United Mexican States, who is the head of state and government, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces. The President also appoints the Cabinet and other officers. The President is responsible for executing and enforcing the law, and has the authority of vetoing bills. The president is elected by direct, popular, universal suffrage. Whoever wins a simple plurality of the national vote is elected. Mexican presidents are limited to a single six-year term.. No one who has held the post, even on a caretaker basis, is allowed to run or serve again.
- The legislative, is the bicameral Congress of the Union, composed of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies, makes federal law, declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments. Senate is completely renewed every six years and the Chamber of Deputies every three years. Following the constitutional precept of "no reelection," deputies and senators are not eligible to immediately succeed themselves.
- The Judiciary branch of government is the Supreme Court of Justice, comprised by eleven judges appointed by the President with Senate approval, who interpret laws and judge cases of federal competency.
All citizens, men and women over 18 years of age have full political rights at federal, state and local level.
The United Mexican States are a federation of twenty-eight free and sovereign states, which form a union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over the Federal District and other territories.
Each state has its own constitution, congress, and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms.
The Federal District is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state, and as such, has more limited local rule than the nation's states.
The states are divided into municipalities, the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president (Presidente municipal), elected by its residents by plurality.
The Constitution recognizes the multicultural composition of the nation founded upon the indigenous peoples to whom the government grants the right of self-(free) determination and autonomy. However no federal legislation has been enacted to norm this right. Some states have provided the necessary framework allowing the promotion, education and use of naive languages and the creation of communal settlements (or rancherías), native ejidos or Indian Reserves.
Mexican armed forces
The Mexican Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Mexico) are composed of the Mexican Army (EM) which includes the Mexican Air Force (FAM) as a subordinate entity and the Mexican Navy which also includes the Mexican Naval Infantry and Naval Aviation (FAN)