Mexico is a nation in North America. They cover border Texas to the North, and Central America to the south. Today, Mexico is a third world country and is unstable because of the War on Drugs and because of constant revolutions in its history.
|Capital: Mexico City|
|Head of State: n/a|
Languages: Offical: Spanish
Religions: Official: None
Others: Christianity, Judaism.
|Type of Government: n/a|
Ethnic Groups: Majority: Hispanics
Minority: White, Africans
Mexican War of Independence
In December 1820, Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca sent a force led by a royalist criollo officer, Colonel Agustin de Iturbide, to fight in Oaxaca. Iturbide was famous for the way in which he went after Hidalgo's and Morelos's rebels during the early independence struggle.
The fight at Oaxaca came at the same time as successful coup in Spain against the monarchy of Ferdinand VII. Ferdinand was forced to reinstate the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812. When this news reached Mexico, Iturbide saw in it an opportunity for the criollos to gain control of Mexico. After first clashing with Guerrero's forces, Iturbide switched sides. He invited the rebel leader to meet and discuss a new independence struggle.While in the town of Iguala, Iturbide created three rules, or "guarantees," for Mexican independence from Spain.
- Mexico would be an independent kingdom. It would be ruled by King Ferdinand, another Bourbon prince, or some other conservative European prince. Special text in the treaty allowed a criollo ruler to be appointed by a Mexican congress if needed,
- criollos and peninsulares would from now on have equal rights and privileges,
- The Roman Catholic Church would keep its privileges and be the only religion allowed.
He made his troops accept these rules. They are known as the Plan of Iguala. Iturbide then persuaded Guerrero to join his forces in support of the new independence. A new army, the Army of the Three Guarantees, was then placed under Iturbide's command to enforce the Plan of Iguala. The plan was so broad that it pleased both patriots and loyalists. The goal of independence and the protection of Roman Catholicism brought together all factions. Rebels all across Mexico joined Iturbide's army. The Spanish Crown soon accepted the treaty under the terms of the Plan of Iguala. Mexico had won it's independence.
After the war however, Iturbide's nation lasted only for a year. He was exiled and then killed, and Santa Anna emerged as the Dominant Political Figure for the next thirty years. In 1835, Texas won it's independence after revolting from Santa Anna's dictatorial rule. Mexico would later go and fight Texas and Great Britain in the First Texan-Mexican War. Mexico would lose the war, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo formally ended the war. Mexico loss a good amount of land in the war, but was what most humilating was giving land one of it's former states.