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Mexico, officially known as the Mexican Empire, is a country in North America.
Before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, a variety of Meso-American cultures flourished in the area now known as Mexico; the most well known of these is the Aztecs and the Mayans. While it is unknown how the Mayans perished, the Aztecs were defeated by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés and all of Mexico was made a part of the Spanish Empire.
As the Spanish colonies rose in insurrection in the 1820's, Spanish General Agustín de Iturbide under a local army proclaimed a revolt against the Spanish crown. Although the Spanish were forced to the negotiation table in 1826 by the French and Americans to talk with the various rebel groups throughout the colonies, a minor civil war broke out between the Republicans, who wished to see Mexico become a democracy, and the Monarchists, who wished to establish a monarchy. Agustín de Iturbide joined the Monarchists, and ultimately managed to win the support of the powerful Catholic Church, and he managed to proclaim himself Emperor Agustín I in 1834.
War of the Southwest
For the next 25 years, Agustín I presided over a massive economic expansion of the new nation. However, Manifests in the United States saw the territory of Texas as and the massive South-west holdings as perfect to expand into, and Mexican attrocities in the area gave President Daniel Webster the excuse he needed to declare war. After a brief war that saw General/Prime Minister Santa Anna try to overthrow the monarchy and establish himself as dictator. Emperor Agustín fled to the Americans, and agreed to allow the California territory to have its independence (as the Pacific Republic) and allow Texas to be annexed, if the Americans could help restore him to the throne. After a vicious battle in Mexico City, Santa Anna fled into exile and the Emperor was re-instated.
War of Confederate Independence and The Third American War
The death of Agustín I in December 1857 placed his son Agustín II on the throne, and within a few months was faced with the War between the States. He jumped on board to support the Confederacy in 1860, seeing the South as a counter weight to American power. However, in later years he would regret this decision, as the CSA and its ally in the Pacific Republic tried to push to capture the Arizona Territory.
When the US and the CSA again went to war in 1882, Mexico allied itself with the US, and immediately felt the brunt of combined Confederate and Pacific Republican arms, and had to sue for peace in 1884, giving up the large Arizona territory to be divided between the two. After this humiliation, Emperor Agustín II nearly lost his throne in a coup d'etat, but loyal army units and a general strike in the city brought down the coup leaders. Agustín II died in 1889, and was succeeded by his nephew, and grandson of the first Emperor, Agustín III.
Second Global War and Revolution
The anger over losing Arizona pushed Mexico to try to rebuild to regain not only the territory lost in the last war, but perhaps most of the Empire that had existed when the nation was declared. Agustín III, however, knew that Mexico was too weak to take on both herself, and felt that the US had no apatite for another war. Mexico instead turned south toward Colombia, and in the Panama War (1899-1901) tried to take the narrow isthmus. However, after three years of war, neither side gained a decisive advantage, and both signed a peace treaty.
When the Second Global War broke out, Mexico at first declared its neutrality. US and Confederate pressure to join the war on their side split the court and the government in half, with the industrialists wishing to ally with the CSA, while the nationalists wanted to join the US and reclaim their lost territory. In 1914, after three years of indecision, a revolution spurred on by Francisco I. Madero and his México Nacionalista Congreso finally overthrew the Monarchy, and Agustín III went into exile. In December 1914, Mexico declared war on the Pacific Republic and the Confederacy, quickly overwhelming the weak defenses along the border and advancing deep into Arizona, at last cutting the Arizona Railroad, and the easy communication between Charleston and San Francisco. When the CSA and Pacific Republic lay down their arms, Mexico was granted only a small part of Arizona, the CSA and Pacific Republic still sharing a common border. This infuriated the Mexican Nationalists, and led into the overthrow of Madero in 1919.
The "Dark Years" and the Third Global War
After the overthrow and death of Madero in 1919, Mexico descended into chaos and civil war. Many factions sprang up to try to take over the nation, ranging from National Socialists to Sorelists to those that wished to invite Agustín III back to the throne. By 1930, the right wing coalition of Nationalists and Industrialists managed to get the upper hand, and set out to rebuild Mexico. Brazil during this time was a major help to Mexico, and sent millions in aid to help rebuild the country that suffered through the 10 year civil war.
When the Third Global War started in 1940, Mexico returned its support to Brazil by declaring war on the National Socialist Powers in South America. A Mexican army helped to crush the Natso's in Peru and Venezuela, but the arrival of the CSA and the Pacific Republic in the war in 1941 convince the Mexican leadership the time was ripe to take on their old foes. In early 1943, when most of the Confederate attention was on the US, Mexico launched an attack on Texas and Southern California in time with the US Operation Marathon to re-link the divided US.
For the next three years, Mexico fought its way through the Pacific Republic and Texas, reaching the Mississippi in June 1946 and raising the Mexican flag over San Francisco in July. at the end of the war, Mexico at last regained the Arizona Territory and established a puppet state in Texas.
Tri- and Dual-Powers Conflict
In the aftermath of the war, Mexico became a supporter of Brazil in the developing Tri-Powers Conflict. However, Sorelists managed to seize power under General Manuel Ávila Camacho in 1952 and became a French ally. For the next 47 years, Mexico would become almost completely dependent on France, as the US kept an unofficial blockade of Mexico that would not allow American or other Juneau Pact members to trade with Mexico. The Central American nation kept a large standing army to defend its borders and ensure domestic tranquility. This was achieved at enormous cost: a stagnant economy, declining income and increasing poverty.
French Withdrawal and the Caribbean Border Conflict
After the 9/9/99 attacks on France and the start of the European Liberation War lead to a drying up of French support, and eventually the dictatorship of Miguel de la Madrid (who took over after Camacho died in 1982) implemented Autosuficiencia, or "self-sufficiency." This lead to a slight decrease in the amount of cash crops to be grown in place of food stuffs, the state designation of labor, and widespread rationing of everything from food to housing to fuel. This lead to a decrease in the specialized sciences, and a return to more simplistic living encouraged by the government until they could rebuild. However, no matter how hard they tried, Mexico still suffered enormously under the effects of the de facto American blockade. Riots in 2002 and 2003 protesting the increasing poverty while those in power amassed large wealth, as well as a lack of money to pay for the army. Increasing tensions finally came to ahead in 2009, when the people and the underpaid army at last rose up in another Second Mexican Civil War.
Texas used this chance to break free from Mexico's grip, and became a Republic under President Rick Perry, while the US and Colombia tried to deal with the swarm of refugees trying to escape the nation. At last, President Tom Hanks launched Operation Taylor to bring order to Mexico, destroying the remaining army of Madrid and taking the dictator into custody to be tried for crimes against humanity.
In the aftermath, American forces remained in Mexico to try to rebuild, under the first democratically elected President of Mexico Vicente Fox. However, Sorelist diehards still threaten the fragile democracy, but the new Mexican Army is achieving successes against the rebels.