Mexico (i/ˈmɛksɨkoʊ/; Spanish: México, IPA: [ˈmexiko]), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States of America and Durango; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, Yucatan, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. It covers 672,210 sq km (259,542 sq mi).
Mexico has had a turbulent history, after declaring independence, then facing the secession of Texas, the Republic of the Rio Grande, the British-Mexican War, the Mexican-American War, the Guatemalan-Mexican War, the French-Mexican War, and World War I. Since its founding, Mexico has lost 4,239,769 sq km (1,636,987 sq mi) of its territory, approximately 86% of the territory from its declaration of independence.