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|Area:||1 972 550 km²|
|Population:||113 724 226|
Mexico (also known as Mexican United States or United States of Mexico)- state in North/Central America, existed from 1810/1821/1823 to 1919 and from 1934 to 1946
Mexico has arisen in the territories inhabited by Indians (Aztec, Maya and other peoples) and later colonized by the Spain. On territory of future of Mexico the Spaniards created a vice royalty of New Spain. In 1810, Mexicans began a war for independence. In 1821, Agustin Iturbide drove the Spaniards from Mexico and became emperor of Mexico. In 1823, Iturbide was overthrown, and Mexico became a federal republic, divided into the states on the model of the U.S.
Mexico in the 19th century was an unstable state for power-fought military, liberals and conservatives, Hispanics were conflicts with the Indians, gave way to a lot of presidents. After the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) the United States annexed Texas and northern Mexico (California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado). In 1861-1867, Mexico has experienced the French intervention, which was accompanied by civil war. In 1876, in Mexico come to power Porfirio Diaz.
PorfiriatoDiaz management- "Porfiriato" (1876-1915)- went down in history as a period when Mexico was booming, but the standard of living was low, most farmers were peons (serfs), farmers have suffered from lack of land, most of the land was bought by foreigners. Mexico called the "mother to foreigners and the stepmother to Mexicans". All sectors of the economy, especially railroads and petroleum-producing, have been under the control of foreign powers - U.S., German Empire and Britain.
But by 1910 Diaz began to lean on the pro-American stance to focus on Britain and Japan. In retaliation for this, the U.S. began to support the Mexican liberals who want the upset of Diaz. In 1910-1911 Porfirio Diaz has successfully suppressed the attempts to overthrow him, but was forced to reform: abolish peonage, and nationalize owned by Americans petroleum-producing and railways. But in 1913 in southern Mexican began peasant uprising, raised by Zapata.
Diaz asked from German ships with arms, but Americans blocked main Mexican port- Veracruz and demanded a fair election in Mexico and return of nationalized property of U.S. Mediator in talks was Britain. The British have convinced Americans that Diaz "lesser evil" compared to radical left-wing rebels of Zapata. It was agreed that Diaz refuses to presidential office, but will retain post of Chief of Army (real power in Mexico). Nationalization, carried out by Diaz, shaped by a "buy." Pay it agreed to Britain. In exchange, Mexico has committed to join Entente.
President CarranzaVenustiano Carranza was elected president of Mexico. To stop the rebellion in southern Mexico, he went to the agrarian reform, giving all the land to the peasants, after which the Zapatistas have laid down their arms. Carranza also separated church and state. In Mexico two-party system took shape: United Liberal Party (supporters of Carranza) and the Agrarian United Front (Zapatistas). Through cooperation with Britain, USA and Japan, the economy continued to grow rapidly. August 4, along with Britain, Mexico declared war on Germany. The European war has become a way for Mexico to "get rid" of a huge number of landless peasants. In 2 July Porfirio Diaz died, and Carranza became real leader of Mexico. After trying a pro-German military coup of general Huerta July 3, 1915, Mexican personnel army had also been sent in Europe. Her commander was Felix Diaz, nephew of Porfirio Diaz. Carranza got rid of enemies by sending them to war.
At this time, deteriorating relations with the United States. Americans continued to hope for return of nationalized property. In addition, they established a protectorate over many neighboring countries to Mexico and Mexicans were afraid to be next. With the 1916-1917 period (after Hungarian and German revolutions) in Mexico increased socialist sentiments. United Agrarian Front began to plan seizure of power by German example. In December 1917, after returning to his homeland Mexican army, General Felix Diaz made a coup and seized power.
Civil warThis caused a massive uprising of Mexicans, supported by U.S. Army, U.S. feared that Diaz would make Mexico a British satellite. By summer of 1918 Americans and insurgents overthrew regime of Felix Diaz. Zapatistas have created a Constituent Assembly, which proclaimed Popular Republic of Mexico and declared her a socialist state. President became Pancho Villa. Civil war began - liberals, led by Alvaro Obregon, rebelled against government with support of United States, Villa was killed.
The Liberals quickly took control of northern Mexico, Socialists controlled the south. The Liberals received support of Americans, socialists - German, and, partially, of Entente countries. In 1919, the parties agreed to a compromise - Belize treaty -, retaining the status quo. In north, created puppet of U.S. Mexican Republic (Northern Mexico), in south kept the Popular Republic of Mexico. From 1919 to 1934 there was no uniform Mexico. The country was divided into: